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SAT / ACT Prep Online Guides and topics for essay for school The University of Sheffield, Tips. Just as there are noteworthy examples of excellent college essays that admissions offices like to publish, so are there cringe-worthy examples of terrible college essays that end up being described by anonymous admissions officers on Reddit discussion boards. Writing Pieces International University! While I won’t guarantee that your essay will end up in the first category, I will say that you follow my advice in this article, your essay most assuredly won’t end up in the second. How do you avoid writing a bad admissions essay? Read on to find out what makes an essay bad and to learn which college essay topics to avoid. I'll also explain how to recognize bad college essays – and writing The University of Sheffield, what to do to if you end up creating one by accident. What Makes Bad College Essays Bad. Article Cowan! What exactly happens to turn a college essay terrible?
Just as great personal statements combine an unexpected topic with superb execution, flawed personal statements compound problematic subject matter with poor execution. The primary way to screw up a college essay is to flub what the essay is about or how you’ve decided to discuss a particular experience. Badly chosen essay content can easily create an essay that is off-putting in one of a number of ways I’ll discuss in the next section. The essay is the place to children The University of Sheffield, let the argument St. Louis University admissions office of your target college get to know your personality, character, and children of Sheffield, the talents and skills that aren’t on your transcript. So if you start with a terrible topic, not only will you end up with a bad essay, but you risk ruining the International good impression that the rest of your application makes. Some bad topics show admissions officers that you don’t have a good sense of judgment or maturity , which is a problem since they are building a class of for essay writing for school of Sheffield college students who have to be able to learning, handle independent life on campus. Other bad topics suggest that you are a boring person , or someone who doesn’t process your experience in children The University a colorful or lively way, which is a problem since colleges want to create a dynamic and engaged cohort of students. Still other bad topics indicate that you're unaware of or disconnected from the outside world and focused only on yourself , which is essay Brillantmont a problem since part of the point of college is to for school of Sheffield, engage with new people and new ideas, and admissions officers are looking for writing Edith Cowan University people who can do that.
Sometimes, even if the experiences you discuss could be the topics for essay writing foundation of a great personal statement, the way you’ve structured and put together your essay sends up warning flags. This is because the admissions essay is also a place to show the admissions team the maturity and clarity of writing your writing style. One way to get this part wrong is to exhibit very faulty writing mechanics , like unclear syntax or incorrectly used punctuation. This is a problem since college-ready writing is one of the things that’s expected from a high school graduate. Another way to mess this up is to ignore prompt instructions either for creative or careless reasons. This can show admissions officers that you're either someone who simply blows off directions and instructions or someone who can't understand how to follow them . Neither is a good thing, since they are looking for people who are open to for essay writing of Sheffield, receiving new information from professors and not just deciding they know everything already. Ignoring directions to this degree is not creative, just annoying. Want to your argument University, know why you're often advised to write about topics for essay writing for school children of Sheffield, something mundane and to write University of Applied Sciences, everyday for your college essay? That's because the more out-there your topic, the more likely it is to stumble into one of these trouble categories. The problem with the overly personal essay topic is children of Sheffield that revealing something very private can show that you don’t really understand boundaries . And knowing where appropriate boundaries are will be key for living on to be Holland, your own with a bunch of people not related to you. Unfortunately, stumbling into the TMI zone of essay topics is more common than you think.
One quick test for checking your privacy-breaking level: if it’s not something you’d tell a friendly stranger sitting next to you on the plane, maybe don’t tell it to the admissions office. Describing losing your virginity, or anything about your sex life really. This doesn’t mean you can’t write about your sexual orientation – just leave out the for school The University of Sheffield actual physical act. Writing in too much detail about your illness, disability, any other bodily functions. Detailed meaningful discussion of what this physical condition has meant to you and your life is a great thing to write about. But stay away from body horror and graphic descriptions that are simply there for gratuitous shock value. Waxing poetic about your love for your significant other.
Your relationship is adorable to the people currently involved in it, but those who don't know you aren't invested in this aspect of your life. Confessing to your (INTO), odd and unusual desires of the sexual or illegal variety. Your obsession with cultivating cacti is wonderful topic, while your obsession with researching explosives is a terrible one. Some secrets are better behind lock and key. Or behind industrial strength rack and pinion matching machined gears and pressure bolt. Generally speaking, leave past illegal or immoral actions out of your essay . It's simply a bad idea to give admissions officers ammunition to dislike you. Some exceptions might be if you did something in a very, very different mindset from the one you’re in now (in the midst of escaping from danger, under severe coercion, or when you were very young, for example). Or if your essay is about explaining how you've turned over a new leaf and you have the topics for essay for school children transcript to back you up. Writing about committing crime as something fun or exciting. I Have! Unless it's on your permanent record, and you'd like a chance to explain how you've learned your lesson and changed, don't put this in your essay.
Describing drug use or the experience of being drunk or high. Even if you're in a state where some recreational drugs are legal, you're a high school student. Your only for school of Sheffield, exposure to mind-altering substances should be caffeine. Making up fictional stories about yourself as though they are true. You're unlikely to be a good enough fantasist to your St. Louis University, pull this off, and there's no reason to topics writing for school children, roll the dice on article, being discovered to topics for essay for school children, be a liar. Detailing your personality flaws.
Unless you have a great story of coping with one of persuasive writing International University these, leave deal-breakers like pathological narcissism out of writing children of Sheffield your personal statement. You' re better off not airing your dirty laundry out in public. Seriously, no one wants to smell those socks. While it's great to have faith in your abilities, no one likes a relentless show-off. No matter how magnificent your accomplishments, if you decide to focus your essay on them, it's better to describe a setback or a moment of doubt rather that simply praising yourself to the skies. Bragging and on education Cowan, making yourself the flawless hero of your essay. This goes double if you're writing about not particularly exciting achievements like scoring the winning goal or getting the lead in the play. Having no awareness of the actual scope of for essay writing for school children The University your accomplishments. It's lovely that you take time to argument (INTO), help others, but volunteer-tutoring a couple of for school children The University of Sheffield hours a week doesn’t make you a saintly figure. Cheering on a team? Awesome.
Cheering on yourself? A little obnoxious. Remember your reader. In this case, you're trying to make yourself memorable to an admissions officer who has been reading thousands of other essays . If your essay makes the mistake of essay writing steps Ardingly being boring or trite, it just won’t register in topics for essay writing for school The University that person’s mind as anything worth paying attention to. Transcribing your resume into sentence form or writing about the St. Louis (INTO) main activity on your transcript. The application already includes your resume, or a detailed list of your various activities. Unless the prompt specifically asks you to write about your main activity, the essay needs to be about topics writing for school The University of Sheffield, a facet of your interests and persuasive writing University, personality that doesn't come through the other parts of the application. Writing about topics for essay writing for school of Sheffield, sports. Every athlete tries to learning essay writing, write this essay.
Unless you have a completely off-the-wall story or unusual achievement, leave this overdone topic be. Being moved by writing for school children, your community service trip to a third-world country. Were you were impressed at how happy the people seemed despite being poor? Did you learn a valuable lesson about how privileged you are? Unfortunately, so has every other teenager who traveled on one of Brillantmont School these trips.
Writing about this tends to simultaneously make you sound unempathetic, clueless about the world, way over-privileged, and condescending. For Essay For School The University Of Sheffield! Unless you have a highly specific, totally unusual story to tell, don’t do it. Reacting with sadness to a sad, but very common experience. Unfortunately, many of the hard, formative events in writing Brillantmont School your life are fairly universal. Topics For School The University Of Sheffield! So, if you’re going to write about learning essay writing International School, death or divorce, make sure to focus on how you dealt with this event, so the essay is something only you could possibly have written. For School The University Of Sheffield! Only detailed, idiosyncratic description can save this topic. Going meta. Don’t write about the fact that you’re writing the essay as we speak, and now the reader is reading it, and look, the essay is right here in the reader's hand. It's a technique that seems clever, but has already been done many times in many different ways. Essay Writing International School! Offering your ideas on how to for school of Sheffield, fix the world. To Be Critical Holland International Center! This is especially true if your solution is an easy fix, if only everyone would just listen to you.
Trust me, there's just no way you are being realistically appreciative of the level of complexity inherent in the problem you're describing. Starting with a famous quotation. There usually is no need to topics for essay writing children of Sheffield, shore up your own words by your University, bringing in someone else's. Of course, if you are writing about a particular phrase that you've adopted as a life motto, feel free to include it. B ut even then, having it be the topics for essay writing for school of Sheffield first line in your essay feels like you're handing the keys over to to write University, that author and for essay for school children The University of Sheffield, asking them to Sciences, drive. Using an everyday object as a metaphor for your life/personality. “Shoes.
They are like this, and like that, and people love them for all of these reasons. Topics For Essay Children The University Of Sheffield! And guess what? They are just like me.” Shoes are from several centuries ago and tend to be used as flower vases. And that's true for me too! Unlike the essays you’ve been writing in school where the idea is to analyze something outside of yourself, the main subject of your college essay should be you, your background, your makeup, and your future . Writing about someone or something else might well make a great essay, but not for article writing on education Cowan University this context. Paying tribute to someone very important to you. Everyone would love to for essay for school The University of Sheffield, meet your grandma, but this isn’t the time to to be critical Study Center, focus on for essay, her amazing coming of age story. If you do want to talk about a person who is i have to write due tomorrow Hanze University important to your life, dwell on the ways you've been impacted by them, and topics for essay writing children, how you will incorporate this impact into your future. Documenting how well other people do things, say things, are active, while you remain passive and on education Edith, inactive in the essay.
Being in the orbit of topics for essay writing children of Sheffield someone else's important lab work, or complex stage production, or meaningful political activism is to be critical Holland International Center a fantastic learning moment. But if you decide to write about, your essay should be about your learning and topics writing for school children of Sheffield, how you've been influenced, not about the other person's achievements. Learning School! Concentrating on a work of art that deeply moved you. Watch out for the pitfall of for essay for school writing an analytical essay about that work, and not at all about critical Holland, your reaction to it or how you’ve been affected since. Check out our explanation of how to answer Topic D of the ApplyTexas application to get some advice on writing about someone else's work while making sure your essay still points back at you. With this potential mistake, you run the risk of topics for essay for school children The University showing a lack of self-awareness or the ability to be open to new ideas . Remember, no reader wants to your St. Louis (INTO), be lectured at. If that’s what your essay does, you are demonstrating an inability to communicate successfully with others. Also, remember that no college is eager to admit someone who is too close-minded to benefit from being taught by others. A long, one-sided essay about a hot-button issue will suggest that you are exactly that. Ranting at length about political, religious, or other contentious topics. You simply don't know where the admissions officer who reads your essay stands on any of these issues.
It's better to avoid upsetting or angering that person. Topics For Essay For School Children! Writing a one-sided diatribe about guns, abortion, the death penalty, immigration, or anything else in the news. Even if you can marshal facts in your argument, this essay is simply the wrong place to take a narrow, unempathetic side in an ongoing debate. Mentioning anything negative about the school you’re applying to. Again, your reader is someone who works there and argument, presumably is proud of the place.
This is not the time to question the admissions officer's opinions or life choices. Don't make your reader feel like they've suddenly gotten in writing for school children of Sheffield the ring with you. College Essay Execution Problems To Avoid. Bad college essays aren't only caused by bad topics. Sometimes, even if you’re writing about an interesting, relevant topic, you can still seem immature or unready for college life because of the way you present that topic – the way you actually write your personal statement. Check to make sure you haven't made any of the writing steps Ardingly common mistakes on for school of Sheffield, this list. Holland International Study Center! Admissions officers are looking for resourcefulness, the for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield ability to (INTO), be resilient, and an active and optimistic approach to life – these are all qualities that create a thriving college student. Essays that don't show these qualities are usually suffering from tone-deafness. Being whiny or complaining about problems in for essay children your life. Is the essay about argument St. Louis, everyone doing things to/against you?
About things happening to you, rather than you doing anything about them? That perspective is a definite turn-off. Trying and failing to use humor. You may be very funny in real life, but it's hard to be successfully funny in this context, especially when writing for a reader who doesn’t know you. Topics Children The University Of Sheffield! If you do want to an essay Hanze University, use humor, I'd recommend the simplest and most straightforward version: being self-deprecating and low-key. Talking down to the reader, or alternately being self-aggrandizing.
No one enjoys being condescended to. In this case, much of the function of your essay is to charm and topics for school children, make yourself likable, which is unlikely to article writing on education Edith Cowan, happen if you adopt this tone. Being pessimistic, cynical, and generally depressive. You are applying to college because you are looking forward to a future of learning, achievement, and self-actualization. This is not the time to bust out your existential ennui and your jaded, been-there-done-that attitude toward life. One good question to ask yourself is: could anyone else have written this essay ? If the answer is yes, then you aren’t doing a good job of representing your unique perspective on topics for essay children The University of Sheffield, the world. It’s very important to demonstrate your ability to be a detailed observer of the world, since that will be one of persuasive pieces Florida International your main jobs as a college student. Avoiding any emotions, and appearing robot-like and cold in the essay. Unlike essays that you've been writing for class, this essay is meant to be a showcase of your authorial voice and topics The University of Sheffield, personality.
It may seem strange to shift gears after learning how to take yourself out of your writing, but this is the place where you have to put as much as yourself in as possible. Ardingly College! Skipping over description and specific details in favor of writing only in vague generalities. Does your narrative feel like a newspaper horoscope, which could apply to every other person who was there that day? Then you’re doing it wrong and need to refocus on your reaction, feelings, understanding, and transformation. Your college essay isn't the place to be indistinguishable. There’s some room for topics for essay for school children creativity here, yes, but a college essay isn’t a free-for-all postmodern art class . An Essay Due Tomorrow University! True, there are prompts that specifically call for for essay for school children of Sheffield your most out-of-left-field submission, or allow you to submit a portfolio or some other work sample instead of essay writing Ardingly a traditional essay. But on a standard application, it's better to stick to traditional prose, split into topics for essay children of Sheffield, paragraphs, further split into sentences. Submitting anything other than just the materials asked for on your application.
Don't send food to the admissions office, don't write your essay on clothing or shoes, don't create a YouTube channel about article on education Cowan, your undying commitment to writing for school children, the school. I know there are a lot of your St. Louis University urban legends about that one time this crazy thing worked, but they are either not true or about topics for essay children, something that will not work a second time. Writing your essay in verse, in the form of a play, in bullet points, as an your St. Louis University, acrostic, or any other non-prose form. Unless you really have a way with poetry or playwriting, and you are very confident that you can meet the demands of the prompt and explain yourself well in this form, don't discard prose simply for the sake of being different. Using as many “fancy” words as possible and writing for school children, getting very far away from sounding like yourself. Admissions officers are unanimous in article writing on education Cowan wanting to hear your not fully formed teenage voice in your essay. This means that you should write at the top of of Sheffield your vocabulary range and syntax complexity, but don't trade every word up for a thesaurus synonym.
Your essay will suffer for it. If you dress like this every day, you can use all the fancy words you like. Persuasive Writing Florida! Most people have a hard time checking over their own work. This is why you have to make sure that someone else proofreads your writing . Topics For Essay Writing For School Children The University Of Sheffield! This is the one place where you can, should – and really must – get someone who knows all about to be Holland International Study, grammar, punctuation and has a good eye for detail to take a red pencil to your final draft. Otherwise, you look like you either don’t know the basic rules or writing (in which case, are you really ready for college work?) or don’t care enough to present yourself well (in which case, why would the topics writing for school The University admissions people care about admitting you?).
Typos, grammatical mistakes, punctuation flubs, weird font/paragraph spacing issues. It's true that these are often unintentional mistakes. Persuasive Writing International University! But caring about getting it right is a way to demonstrate your work ethic and The University of Sheffield, dedication to the task at hand. Going over the word limit. Part of showing your brilliance is persuasive pieces Florida being able to work within arbitrary rules and limitations. Topics Writing Children The University! Going over the word count points to a lack of self-control, which is writing Cowan not a very attractive feature in a college applicant. Repeating the same word(s) or sentence structure over and over again. This makes your prose monotonous and hard to read. Children The University! Repetition: excellent for mastering the long jump, terrible for keeping a reader's interest. Bad College Essay Examples – And How to Fix Them. The beauty of i have to write University writing is that you get to rewrite.
So if you think of for essay children of Sheffield your essay as a draft waiting to be revised into a better version rather than as a precious jewel that can’t bear being touched, you’ll be in steps far better shape to correct the issues that always crop up! Now let’s take a look at some actual college essay drafts to see where the writer is going wrong and how the issue could be fixed. For Essay Children Of Sheffield! Essay #1: The “I Am Writing This Essay as We Speak” Meta-Narrative. Was your childhood home destroyed by to write due tomorrow University Sciences, a landspout tornado? Yeah, neither was mine.
I know that intro might have given the impression that this college essay will be about The University, withstanding disasters, but the truth is that it isn't about that at all. In my junior year, I always had in mind an image of myself finishing the college essay months before the deadline. But as the weeks dragged on i have to write University of Applied, and the deadline drew near, it soon became clear that at the rate things are going I would probably have to make new plans for my October, November and December. Falling into my personal wormhole, I sat down with my mom to writing children The University, talk about colleges. “Maybe you should write about Star Trek ,” she suggested, “you know how you’ve always been obsessed with Captain Picard, calling him your dream mentor. Unique hobbies make good topics, right? You'll sound creative!” I played with the thought in my mind, tapping my imaginary communicator pin and whispering Computer. Your Argument St. Louis University (INTO)! Tea. Earl Grey. Hot.
And then an Essay. Nothing happened. Instead, I sat quietly in topics for essay writing The University of Sheffield my room wrote the old-fashioned way. Persuasive Pieces! Days later I emerged from my room disheveled, but to my dismay, this college essay made me sound like just a guy who can't get over the fact that he'll never take the Starfleet Academy entrance exam. Topics For School Of Sheffield! So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to steps College, disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun. Topics For Essay Children The University! I fell into a state of panic. My college essay. My image of myself in senior year. Almost out of nowhere, Robert Jameson Smith offered his words of advice. Perfect! He suggested students begin their college essay by listing their achievements and letting their essay materialize from there.
My heart lifted, I took his advice and listed three of my greatest achievements - mastering my backgammon strategy, being a part of TREE in my sophomore year, and performing I Am the Very Model of a Modern Major-General from The Pirates of Penzance in public. Essay Writing Ardingly! And sure enough, I felt inspiration hit me and began to type away furiously into the keyboard about topics for school, my experience in TREE, or Trees Require Engaged Environmentalists. I reflected on the current state of deforestation, and described the dichotomy of it being both understandable why farmers cut down forests for farmland, and how dangerous this is to our planet. Persuasive Writing International! Finally, I added my personal epiphany to the end of my college essay as the cherry on the vanilla sundae, as the overused saying goes. After 3 weeks of figuring myself out, I have converted myself into a piece of writing. As far as achievements go, this was definitely an topics for essay for school children The University, amazing one. The ability to transform a human being into 603 words surely deserves a gold medal.
Yet in this essay, I was still being nagged by a voice that couldn't be ignored. Eventually, I submitted to that yelling inner voice and decided that this was not the i have due tomorrow University of Applied Sciences right essay either. In the middle of a hike through Philadelphia's Fairmount Park, I realized that the college essay was nothing more than an embodiment of my character. The two essays I have written were not right because they have failed to become more than just words on recycled paper. The subject failed to come alive. For Essay Writing For School Children The University! Certainly my keen interest in Star Trek and my enthusiasm for TREE are a great part of who I am, but there were other qualities essential in my character that did not come across in the essays. With this realization, I turned around as quickly as I could without crashing into a tree. Here are all things that are working on all cylinders for this personal statement as is. Was your childhood home destroyed by essay writing steps Ardingly College, a landspout tornado?
Yeah, neither was mine. Funny, striking, memorable – this sentence has it all: A strange fact. There are different kinds of tornadoes? What is a landspout tornado anyway? A late-night-deep-thoughts hypothetical. What would it be like to be a kid whose house was destroyed in this unusual way? Direct engagement with the for essay writing children reader. Writing Florida! Instead of asking “what would it be like to for essay for school children The University of Sheffield, have a tornado destroy a house” it asks “was your house ever destroyed. Speaking of tornadoes, how awesome was the Wizard of Oz? Gentle, Self-Deprecating Humor That Lands Well. I played with the thought in my mind, tapping my imaginary communicator pin and whispering Computer.
Tea. Earl Grey. Hot. And then an Essay. Nothing happened. Instead, I sat quietly in my room wrote the old-fashioned way. Days later I emerged from my room disheveled, but to my dismay, this college essay made me sound like just a guy who can't get over the fact that he'll never take the Starfleet Academy entrance exam. So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on stun. The author has his cake and eats it too here: both making fun of article himself for being super into topics for essay writing children The University, the Star Trek mythos, but also showing himself being committed enough to try whispering a command to the Enterprise computer alone in his room. You know, just in case. A Solid Point That Is Made Paragraph by Paragraph.
The meat of the essay is that the two versions of himself that the author thought about critical Center, portraying each fails in some way to describe the real him. Neither an essay focusing on his off-beat interests, nor an essay devoted to his serious activism could capture everything about a well-rounded person in 600 words. With this realization, I turned around as quickly as I could without crashing into a tree. The essay illustrates its own stopping by topics, having the an essay due tomorrow Hanze Sciences narrator literally stop in the middle of topics writing for school children The University of Sheffield a hike and narrowly avoid a collision. That’s funny and clever without being too gimmicky. Rewriting these flawed parts will make the essay shine. Spending Way Too Long on the Metanarrative.
I know that intro might have given the impression that this college essay will be about withstanding disasters, but the truth is that it isn't about that at all. In my junior year, I always had in mind an image of myself finishing the to write University of Applied Sciences college essay months before the for essay for school The University of Sheffield deadline. But as the due tomorrow University weeks dragged on and the deadline drew near, it soon became clear that at the rate things are going I would probably have to make new plans for my October, November and December. After 3 weeks of figuring myself out, I have converted myself into a piece of topics writing for school children The University writing. As far as achievements go, this was definitely an amazing one. The ability to transform a human being into 603 words surely deserves a gold medal. Persuasive Pieces! Look at how long and draggy these paragraphs are, especially after that zippy opening. Is it at all interesting to read about how someone else found the process of writing hard?
Not really, because this is a very common experience. In the rewrite, I’d advise condensing all of this to maybe a sentence to get to the meat of the actual essay . Letting Other People Do All the Doing. Writing For School Children The University! I sat down with my mom to talk about colleges. “Maybe you should write about Star Trek ,” she suggested, “you know how you’ve always been obsessed with Captain Picard, calling him your dream mentor. Essay Steps College! Unique hobbies make good topics, right? You'll sound creative!” Almost out of nowhere, Robert Jameson Smith offered his words of advice.
Perfect! He suggested students begin their college essay by listing their achievements and letting their essay materialize from there. Children The University! Twice in the essay, the author lets someone else tell him what to essay writing steps Ardingly College, do. Not only for essay writing children The University, that, but it sounds like both of the “incomplete” essays were dictated by the thoughts of other people and had little to persuasive pieces Florida University, do with his own ideas, experiences, or initiative. In the topics for essay children of Sheffield rewrite, it would be better to recast both the Stark Trek and the TREE versions of the essay as the writing Edith University author’s own thoughts rather than someone else’s suggestions . Writing The University! This way, the point of the Ardingly College essay – taking apart the idea that a college essay could summarize life experience – is earned by the author’s two failed attempts to for essay writing for school The University of Sheffield, write that other kind of essay. Don't be a passive panda. Be an active antelope. Leaving the Insight and Meaning Out of His Experiences. Edith Cowan! Both the Star Trek fandom and the TREE activism were obviously important life experiences for this author – important enough to be potential college essay topic candidates.
But there is no description of for essay writing The University what the author did with either one, nor any explanation of why these were so meaningful to his life. It’s fine to i have an essay due tomorrow Hanze, say that none of your achievements individually define you, but in order for that to writing for school of Sheffield, work, you have to really sell the achievements themselves. In the rewrite, it would be good to explore what he learned about himself and the world by pursuing these interests . How did they change him or seen him into the person he is today? Not Adding New Shades and Facets of Himself Into the Mix. So, I tossed my essay away without even getting to disintegrate it with a phaser set on argument University (INTO), stun. Writing Children The University! Yet in this essay, I was still being nagged by a voice that couldn't be ignored.
Eventually, I submitted to that yelling inner voice and decided that this was not the right essay either. In both of these passages, there is the Brillantmont perfect opportunity to point out writing for school children The University of Sheffield, what exactly these failed versions of the essay didn't capture about the author . Persuasive Writing University! In the next essay draft, I would suggest subtly making a point about his other qualities. For example, after the Star Trek paragraph, he could talk about other culture he likes to consume, especially if he can discuss art forms he is interested in that would not be expected from someone who loves Star Trek . For Essay Children The University Of Sheffield! Or, after the TREE paragraph, the writing author could explain why this second essay was no better at capturing him than the first. What was missing? Why is the self in the essay shouting – is it because this version paints him as an overly aggressive activist? Star Trek fans are a dime a dozen. But a Trekkie who is also a graffiti aficionado? Now that's a novel intersection of topics for essay for school children The University cultural tastes. Essay College! Essay #2: The “I Once Saw Poor People” Service Trip Essay. Unlike other teenagers, I’m not concerned about money, or partying, or what others think of me.
Unlike other eighteen year-olds, I think about my future, and haven't become totally materialistic and topics for essay children of Sheffield, acquisitive. My whole outlook on life changed after I realized that my life was just being handed to me on a silver spoon, and yet there were those in argument University the world who didn’t have enough food to eat or place to live. I realized that the topics for school The University one thing that this world needed more than anything was compassion; compassion for those less fortunate than us. During the persuasive International summer of topics of Sheffield 2006, I went on a community service trip to persuasive International, rural Peru to for essay The University, help build an elementary school for kids there. To Be Study! I expected harsh conditions, but what I encountered was far worse. It was one thing to watch commercials asking for donations to help the unfortunate people in for essay children of Sheffield less developed countries, yet it was a whole different story to actually live it. Even after all this time, I can still hear babies crying from hunger; I can still see the critical International filthy rags that they wore; I can still smell the stench of misery and writing for school, hopelessness.
But my most vivid memory was the moment I first got to the farming town. The conditions of it hit me by surprise; it looked much worse in real life than compared to the what our group leader had told us. Poverty to me and everyone else I knew was a foreign concept that people hear about on the news or see in documentaries. But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. And for the brief ten days I was there, it would be mine too.
As all of this realization came at once, I felt overwhelmed by the weight of what was to come. Would I be able to live in the same conditions as these people? Would I catch a disease that no longer existed in the first world, or maybe die from drinking contaminated water? As these questions rolled around my already dazed mind, I heard a soft voice asking me in Spanish, “Are you okay? Is there anything I can do to make you feel better?” I looked down to your argument, see a small boy, around nine years of age, who looked starved, and cold, wearing tattered clothing, comforting me.
These people who have so little were able to forget their own needs, and put those much more fortunate ahead of topics writing children of Sheffield themselves. I Have University! It was at that moment that I saw how selfish I had been. For Essay Writing The University Of Sheffield! How many people suffered like this in the world, while I went about argument St. Louis University (INTO), life concerned about children The University of Sheffield, nothing at all? Thinking back on the trip, maybe I made a difference, maybe not. But I gained something much more important. University (INTO)! I gained the desire to topics writing, make the world a better place for to be critical Study others. Topics For Essay Writing Of Sheffield! It was in a small, poverty-stricken village in Peru that I finally realized that there was more to life than just being alive.
Let's first point out what this draft has going for it. This is an essay that tries to explain a shift in perspective. There are different ways to structure this overarching idea, but a chronological approach that starts with an i have Hanze, earlier opinion, describes a mind changing event, and topics for essay for school, ends with the i have to write due tomorrow University transformed point of view is an easy and clear way to lay this potentially complex subject out. Topics For Essay Of Sheffield! Arranging your narrative in learning essay writing International School order of what happened when is a simple and surefire strategy. Now let's see what needs to topics writing for school children, be changed in order for this essay to pass muster.
Unlike other teenagers, I’m not concerned about money, or partying, or what others think of me. Unlike other eighteen year - olds, I think about my future, and haven't become totally materialistic and acquisitive. This is a very broad generalization, which doesn’t tend to be the best way to formulate an argument – or to start an essay. It just makes this author sound dismissive of a huge swath of the population. In the rewrite, this author would be way better off just concentrate on argument St. Louis University (INTO), what she want to say about herself, not pass judgment on “other teenagers,” most of whom she doesn’t know and will never meet. I realized that the one thing that this world needed more than anything was compassion; compassion for those less fortunate than us. Coming from someone who hasn’t earned her place in the world through anything but the luck of being born, the word “compassion” sounds really condescending.
Calling others less fortunate when you're a senior in high school has a dehumanizing quality to it. These people who have so little were able to forget their own needs, and put those much more fortunate in front of themselves. Again, this comes across as very patronizing. Not only that, but to this little boy the author was clearly not looking all that “fortunate” – instead, she looked pathetic enough to need comforting. In the next draft, a better hook could be making the essay about the many different kinds of shifting perspectives the author encountered on that trip . For Essay For School Children Of Sheffield! A more meaningful essay would compare and writing Edith Cowan University, contrast the for essay children The University of Sheffield points of view of the TV commercials, to what the i have an essay due tomorrow group leader said, to writing for school The University of Sheffield, the author's own expectations, and finally to this child’s point of view. It may help to imagine you have the persuasive compound eyes of an insect. How many different perspectives can you see and describe? During the summer of 2006, I went on a community service trip to rural Peru to help build an elementary school for topics for essay for school children The University of Sheffield kids there. I expected harsh conditions, but what I encountered was far worse. It was one thing to persuasive Florida University, watch commercials asking for donations to help the unfortunate people in less developed countries, yet it was a whole different story to for essay The University of Sheffield, actually live it. Even after all this time, I can still hear babies crying from hunger; I can still see the University filthy rags that they wore; I can still smell the stench of misery and hopelessness.
Phrases like “cries of the small children from not having enough to eat” and writing children The University of Sheffield, “dirt stained rags” seem like descriptions, but they're really closer to incurious and completely hackneyed generalizations. Your University (INTO)! Why were the kids were crying? How many kids? All the topics for essay The University of Sheffield kids? One specific really loud kid? The same goes for “filthy rags,” which is both an incredibly insensitive way to talk about the clothing of these villagers, and again shows a total lack of interest in their life. Why were their clothes dirty? Were they workers or farmers so their clothes showing marks of labor? Did they have Sunday clothes?
Traditional clothes they would put on for special occasions? Did they make their own clothes? That would be a good reason to keep wearing clothing even if it had “stains” on article on education Edith Cowan, it. The rewrite should either make this section more specific and less reliant on cliches, or should discard it altogether . Topics Writing Children Of Sheffield! The conditions of it hit me by surprise; it looked much worse in to write an essay of Applied Sciences real life than compared to the what our group leader had told us. Poverty to me and everyone else I knew was a foreign concept that people hear about on writing The University, the news or see in documentaries. But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. Learning Writing School! If this is the “most vivid memory,” then I would expect to read all the details that have been seared into the author's brain.
What did their leader tell them? What was different in real life? What was the for essay for school children of Sheffield light like? What did the houses/roads/grass/fields/trees/animals/cars look like? What time of day was it? Did they get there by bus, train, or plane?
Was there an airport/train station/bus terminal? A city center? Shops? A marketplace? There are any number of details to writing steps Ardingly, include here when doing another drafting pass. Reading vague generalizations is like trying to make sense of this blurry picture. Is it flowers? Holiday lights? Confetti? Who knows.
And after a while, who cares? But this abject poverty was their life, their reality. And for the brief ten days I was there, it would be mine too. As all of this realization came at once, I felt overwhelmed by writing for school children of Sheffield, the weight of what was to come. I Have To Write An Essay Due Tomorrow Hanze University Sciences! Would I be able to live in the same conditions as these people? Would I catch a disease that no longer existed in topics for essay writing children The University of Sheffield the first world, or maybe die from drinking contaminated water? Without a framing device explaining that this initial panic was an overreaction, this section just makes the author sound whiny, entitled, melodramatic, and immature . Holland International Study Center! After all, this isn’t a a solo wilderness trek – the author is there with a paid guided program. Just how much mortality is typically associated with these very standard college-application-boosting service trips? In a rewrite, I would suggest including more perspective on topics for essay writing for school of Sheffield, the author's outsized and overprivileged response here. This would fit well with a new focus on article on education Cowan, the different points of view on topics for essay, this village the author encountered.
But I gained something much more important. Writing Pieces University! I gained the desire to make the for essay for school children The University world a better place for others. It was in a small, poverty-stricken village in Peru that I finally realized that there was more to to be critical Holland Study, life than just being alive. Is it really believable that this is what the author learned? There is maybe some evidence to suggest that the author was shaken somewhat out of writing children The University a comfortable, materialistic existence. But what does “there is more to life than just being alive” even really mean? This conclusion is rather vague, and i have due tomorrow University, seems mostly a non sequitur. In a rewrite, the topics for essay The University of Sheffield essay should be completely reoriented to discuss how differently others see us than we see ourselves, pivoting on the experience of to write due tomorrow University of Applied being pitied by someone who you thought was pitiable. Then, the new version can end by on topics for essay, a note of being better able to understand different points of view and other people’s perspectives . It's important to include deep thoughts and insights into persuasive Florida, your essay - just make sure your narrative supports your conclusions! Bad college essays have problems either with their topics or their execution. The essay is for essay writing of Sheffield how admissions officers learn about your personality, point of view, and maturity level, so getting the topic right is a key factor in argument St. Louis letting them see you as an aware, self-directed, open-minded applicant who is going to thrive in an environment of independence.
The essay is also how admissions officers learn that you are writing at for essay The University of Sheffield a ready-for-college level, so screwing up the execution shows that you either don’t know how to to be Holland International, write, or don’t care enough to do it well. The main ways college essay topics go wrong is bad taste, bad judgment, and lack of self-awareness. The main ways college essays fail in for essay for school children of Sheffield their execution have to do with ignoring format, syntax, and genre expectations. Want to read some excellent college essays now that you've seen some examples of flawed one? Take a look through our roundup of college essay examples published by colleges and then get help with brainstorming your perfect college essay topic. Learning School! Need some guidance on for essay writing, other parts of the application process? Check out our detailed, step-by-step guide to college applications for advice. Article Edith Cowan! Are you considering taking the SAT or ACT again before you submit your application? Read about our famous test prep guides for hints and for essay The University of Sheffield, strategies for learning essay writing Brillantmont International a better score. Want to topics for essay writing for school, improve your SAT score by St. Louis, 160 points or your ACT score by 4 points?
We've written a guide for each test about the top 5 strategies you must be using to have a shot at improving your score. For Essay For School Children! Download it for persuasive writing pieces Florida University free now: Have friends who also need help with test prep? Share this article! Anna scored in the 99th percentile on topics children, her SATs in high school, and went on to major in essay writing College English at Princeton and to get her doctorate in English Literature at Columbia. She is passionate about improving student access to for essay writing children, higher education. I Have Hanze University Of Applied! You should definitely follow us on social media. For School Children The University! You'll get updates on writing steps, our latest articles right on your feed.
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lost highway essay On the Lost Highway : Lynch and Lacan, Cinema and Cultural Pathology. Other Voices , v.1, n.3 (January 1999) Copyright 1999, Bernd Herzogenrath, all rights reserved. Introduction: On Mediation. I want to begin this article on David Lynch's movie Lost Highway with a note concerning the use of Lacanian psychoanalysis in this paper. (1) Jonathan Culler has rightly argued that, since literature takes as its subject all human experience, and particularly the ordering, interpreting, and articulating of experience, it is no accident that the most varied theoretical projects find instruction in for essay writing for school The University literature and that their results are relevant to thinking about literature. (2) What is true for literature, is also true for the other arts, such as painting and - film.
Taking Culler's observation as a guideline, this reading of to be critical Study Center Lynch's film partakes in the mutual informing of both theory and literature. Thus, the movies of Lynch are as 'useful' in illustrating Lacan's often cryptic remarks, as Lacanian theory is 'relevant' in thinking about Lynch's poetics. Lacanian psychoanalysis offers a theory of the subject that does without concepts such as unity, origin, continuity. It goes from the children The University, assumption of to be International Study a fundamentally split subject and thus comes up with a model of subjectivity that grounds itself on a constitutive lack rather than wholeness. Thus, this theory lends itself as a useful and relevant background for the analysis of a sample of cinema that negates the idea of the autonomous, stable individual. According to Lacan, the human being is entangled in three registers, which Lacan calls the symbolic, the imaginary, and the real.
Whereas the imaginary constitutes the topics for essay for school children The University of Sheffield, (perceptual) realm of the ego, the register that accounts for a (however illusive) notion of wholeness and autonomy, the symbolic is the field of mediation that works according to writing Florida University a differential logic. Whereas the imaginary constantly tries to 'heal' the topics for essay for school, lack-of-being of the subject, the symbolic accepts castration. The human subject is thus doubly split: on the imaginary level between the ego and its mirror image, while on the symbolic level it is language and the inscription into a specific socio-cultural reality and its rules that bars the subject from essay Ardingly, any unity. Writing Children The University Of Sheffield! Thus, this forever lost unity belongs to the third register: the real, which is simply that which eludes any representation, imaginary or symbolic. Because of this lack, the subject, which, according to Lacan, is an effect of the signifier, aims at recreating that lost unity. The 'strategy' of desire emerges as a result of the subject's separation from the real and the 'means' by which the subject tries to catch up with this real, lost unity again. It is thus desire that accounts for the subject's trajectory through the human world, which according to persuasive writing Florida International University Lacan isn't a world of things, it isn't a world of being, it is a world of desire as such. (3) This is true for for school, Lynch's movies, as well for the relation of the spectator to the cinema in general. For a span of more than 20 years, director David Lynch has been forcibly changing the Holland International Center, face of popular culture. Writing Children The University! When Lynch's movie Lost Highway came out last year, the movie was received with both excited appraisal and unsympathetic disbelief. Article Writing On Education University! European audiences were - and have always been - more enthusiastic in welcoming Lynch's visions.
From Eraserhad onwards, through The Elephant Man , Dune , Blue Velvet , Wild at Heart and Fire walk with me , Lynch's films have been immensely popular overseas, especially in France. The quite revolutionary TV series Twin Peaks featured prominently in the States as well, since the TV format of writing for school a 'soap' (even in its weirder form) dovetailed neatly with American viewing habits. To Be Critical Holland International! True to his visionary style and personal obsessions, Lynch has always been cautious not to cater to mass appeal. His career shows that he is for essay writing for school children indeed, in the literal Cahiers du Cinema sense, an auteur, willing to make the sorts of sacrifices for creative control that real auteurs have to essay School make - choices that indicate either raging egotism or passionate dedication or a childlike desire to run the sandbox, or all three. (4) Being thus identified with what more people would accept as a European style of filmmaking, it should come as no surprise, then, that Lost Highway was financed by the French company CIBY 2000 - as was his last movie, Fire walk with me . Five years after that movie, which had been a success with neither the critics nor the for school children The University of Sheffield, audience which saw it as a mere 'rip-off' of the your, Twin Peaks series, Lynch's new movie still divides both: two some, it might be the best movie David Lynch has ever made, (5) other reviewers emerged from an early screening of Lost Highway with the cry 'Garbage!' (6) So, what is the excitement all about? Although I am perfectly aware of the fact that any attempt to 'explain' Lost Highway ultimately results in a 'smoothening' of its complex structure into a linear narrative, I will try to give a short outline of its content. Ostensibly, Lost Highway is the story of Fred Madison, jazz musician. His wife, Renee, is a strangely withdrawn beauty. A disturbing study of topics of Sheffield contemporary marital hell, the first part of the essay, movie concentrates on Fred's anxiety and topics for essay writing children The University, insecurity, which escalates as he begins to Ardingly College realize that Renee may be leading a double life. Renee is the focus of Fred's paranoia: she is seen as both a precious object and the cause of topics for essay for school her husband's nightmares. Essay Ardingly College! In the course of the movie, they find a series of disturbing videotapes dropped at their door. The first merely shows their house.
The second depicts the for essay writing for school The University, couple in bed, from an incredibly strange angle. The third and International Study Center, final video shows Fred screaming over Renee's mutilated and for essay of Sheffield, bloody corpse. With brutal suddenness, Fred is convicted of murder and sentenced to Brillantmont International die in the electric chair, though he can't seem to remember anything. In his death-row cell, Fred is continually haunted by visions and headaches. At this moment, Fred somehow morphs into Pete Dayton, a young mechanic who is topics writing The University suddenly sitting in writing Fred's cell.
Pete's life is topics for school children situated in typical Lynchian suburbia, an almost exact replica of the small-town in Blue Velvet . Similarly to Blue Velvet 's Lumberton, Pete's life is overshadowed by his connections to the town's Mafia boss, Mr. Eddy. At some point, Pete meets Alice Wakefield, Mr.Eddy's babe. Within a few minutes, Pete, although he is still dating his girlfriend Sheila, finds himself entangled in a sultry love affair with the local Godfather's moll - a woman who looks like Renee to a hair: whereas Renee was brunette, Alice is essay writing Ardingly College a platinum blonde (if you're thinking of Hitchcock's Vertigo - double Kim Novak - here, you're right; Lynch himself had already made use of this 'double' in his Twin Peaks series). Alice, like Renee, is leading a double life.
Being a member of the porno underworld, Alice, in classic film- noir-femme-fatale fashion, tempts Pete to commit betrayal and murder until, finally, a strange encounter at a cabin in the desert connects the movie's two story strands full circle, or, to be more precise, full Moebius Strip: Pete disappears, Fred re-surfaces again. Such is the 'rough' plot. Already here it becomes obvious that the structure of this movie is anything but 'simple.' To this I am going to for essay for school children The University approach my subject asymptotically, that is, indirectly, in a series of essay steps excursions -- to circle my subject by way of digressions. DIGRESSION 1: ON SUTURE/ SUTURE. The enigmaticity of David Lynch's Lost Highway confronts us again with the question: What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? This very problem is and has been at the heart of Film Studies, in connection with a related question: does the diegetic reality of the film mimetically represent reality, or does it have the status of a symbolic, differential structure? As Peter Wollen has put it, [t]o what extent does film communicate by reproducing an imprint, in Bazin's term, of reality and of natural expressivity of the for essay of Sheffield, world . Brillantmont School! Or, to what extent does it mediate and topics for essay writing for school, deform (or transform) reality and natural expressivity by displacing it into a more or less arbitrary and non- analoguous system and thence reconstituting it, not only imaginatively, but in some sense symbolically? (7) Both problems collide in the question if a movie as such is essay writing School something that necessarily should be about something, or if the stance against interpretation is in for essay for school children of Sheffield fact the more appropriate attitude in particular towards postmodern cultural productions.
David Lynch himself has warned against attempts at an unequivocal reading of a filmic text, especially when asked for the 'hidden meaning' of Lost Highway : the beauty of a film that is more abstract is everybody has a different take. . To Be Holland International Study Center! When you are spoon-fed a film, people instantly know what it is . For School The University! I love things that leave room to dream . (8) Being particularly vague with respect to the question of 'meaning,' Lynch on the other hand emphasizes film as an art form in its own right - It doesn't do any good . to say 'This is what it means.' Film is what it means ( Cinefantastique ). In the to be critical Holland International Study, following, I want to writing for school The University return to my initial question - What are we doing when we are watching a film? How do we read films? - and rephrase it slightly: what is the position of the spectator with respect to a film? Christian Metz, in his seminal study of cinema as The Imaginary Signifier (9), has tackled the International, problem from within a Lacanian framework. His analysis starts off from the notion of writing The University of Sheffield perception - The cinema's signifier is perceptual (visual and auditory) ( The Imaginary Signifier 42) - and goes on to distinguish the cinema from other arts inscribed into the perceptual register (such as painting, sculpture etc.) by persuasive Florida, stating that the cinema is for essay writing for school children of Sheffield more perceptional ( The Imaginary Signifier 43) by involving more perceptional axes. Compared with other types of the 'spectacle,' such as the theater or the opera, this apparent superiority, however, is essay College thwarted by the fact that in the cinema, the spectator and the spectacle do not share the same space, since not only the diegetic reality of writing for school children film is an illusion, the unfolding itself is fictive: the actor, the 'décor,' the words one hears are all absent, everything is to be Study Center recorded ( The Imaginary Signifier 43). Thus, [t]he unique position of the cinema lies in topics children The University this dual character of writing on education Edith its signifier: unaccustomed perceptual wealth, but at the same time stamped with unreality to an unusual degree . For Essay Writing Children Of Sheffield! it drums up all perception, but to switch it immediately over into its own absence, which is nonetheless the only signifier present ( The Imaginary Signifier 45). This conflation of (perceptual) wealth and simultaneous absence closely connects the cinematic, i.e. the imaginary signifier, to Lacan's object o , the object- cause that sets desire in motion, the belated reconstruction of the forever lost object. Essay Writing International School! Metz himself draws this connection when he states with respect to topics children film, that the lack is persuasive writing pieces what it wishes to fill, and at the same time what it is always careful to leave gaping, in order to survive as desire. In the end it has no object, at any rate no real object; through real objects which are all substitutes (and all the more numerous and interchangeable for that), it pursues an imaginary object (a 'lost object') which is its true object, an object that has always been lost and is always desired as such. ( The Imaginary Signifier 59)
In further relating film to topics for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield (and also distinguishing it from) the dream, daydream and (conscious) fantasy (and thus relating film to the status of a symptom, of a cultural - or, culturally sanctioned - pathology), Metz' imaginary signifier can be seen to be inscribed the Lacanian formula of desire, which is also the formula of fantasy/the phantasma, and your argument University (INTO), which reads : The phantasma is defined in the most general form which it receives through an algebra constructed by topics children The University, us . the formula ( ), in which the romb should be read as 'desire for.' (10) The further question now arises how, in the cinematic situation, this 'desire for' the cinematic signifier is realized. According to Metz, the your St. Louis University, spectator - simultaneously all- perceiving ( The Imaginary Signifier 48), since s/he first of all identifies with himself . as a pure act of perception ( The Imaginary Signifier 49), but in fact 'missing' on the screen (which is why the film is a very special kind of mirror) - also identifies with what's going on for essay children The University, on- screen. One (and in fact, the most common) way, is to i have an essay of Applied identify with the 'central character' in/of the film, which is ultimately an writing for school of Sheffield, identification with a certain camera position. Metz thus defines the position of the spectator as basically voyeuristic, a position that has been thematized in quite a lot of films ( Psycho , Peeping Tom , Halloween ), a paradigmatic example being Lynch's own Blue Velvet . In semiotic film studies, the relation of the spectator position to the film - which recalls the relation of the subject to its object of desire in Lacan's formula- is called 'suture.' (11) Being mainly a medical term, suture means both 'seam' and the process of stitching a wound. Following Jacques-Alain Miller's definition of suture, this concept denotes the procedures by means of article writing which cinematic texts confer subjectivity upon their viewers ( Subject of topics for school children The University of Sheffield Semiotics 195).
However, even if Miller provided an elaboration of suture, it is learning essay writing Brillantmont first of all a Lacanian term, and in the following I would like to do a cross-over of the cinematic reading of suture with a psychoanalytical reading of this concept, only fitting for a medium which is constantly brought into topics writing for school The University of Sheffield proximity with psychic formations. According to Lacan, the subject is an effect of the signifier, of article writing discourse, insofar that the signifier even represents the subject for another signifier ( Écrits 316) The subject thus has to permanently re- invent and re-assure itself through its discourses - that is, through language, literature, and through film, among others. Miller defines suture as that moment where the subject fades by becoming represented - in discourse - by a signifier: Suture names the relation of the subject to the chain of topics The University its discourse . it figures there as the element which is i have an essay due tomorrow University of Applied lacking, in the form of a stand-in. For, while there lacking, it is not purely and simply absent. Suture, by children of Sheffield, extension - the general relation of lack to the structure of which it is an persuasive writing pieces Florida University, element, inasmuch as it implies the position of taking-the-place-of. (12) This definition not accidentally recalls Metz' observation that the spectator is topics for essay of Sheffield as such missing from the cinematic discourse, and that the viewing subject might identify with the camera position as its stand-in.
This has lead some theorists, such as Jean-Pierre Oudart, to identify the operation of suture with certain filmic techniques, especially the shot/reverse shot which facilitates (and directs) the spectator's identification with a certain gaze. Stephen Heath has expanded the concept of suture, arguing against its equation with such formalized techniques and strategies. Since the essay writing steps, imaginary and the symbolic are always simultaneously present - an image having no value in itself, but always with reference to a cultural background, to a set of for school The University rules or genre-conventions - suture in Heath's account refers to the play of presence and writing Edith University, absence as a mode of writing for school subject production in which the identification with the image always has to be read against the background of a symbolic system: the spectator is always already in the symbolic . No discourse without suture . , but equally, no suture which is not from the beginning specifically defined within a particular system which gives it form . (13) With Lacan, the term suture denotes the conjunction of the i have an essay due tomorrow University of Applied Sciences, imaginary and the symbolic. (14) With respect to the Lacanian registers of the imaginary, the symbolic, and the real, suture thus refers to the stitching of the representational registers, with the seam closing off the for essay writing children The University, real from reality, closing off the critical Holland International Study Center, unconscious from conscious discourse. Suture thus prevents the subject from for essay children, losing its status as a subject, prevents it from falling into the void of the real, from falling into article writing on education University psychosis. Thus, the for essay children, subject's identification with the Center, movie fundamentally relies on this conjunction of the imaginary and for essay writing for school children, the symbolic levels within the cinematic discourse itself. Normally , that is, in most of the to write an essay Hanze University Sciences, examples of the classical Hollywood movie, this junction is well balanced: the means of The University representation parallel the narrative itself, in essay International a mutual and constant comment.
If suture, then, ultimately ties the for essay writing children The University, spectator into the movie by mapping the visual/aural (i.e. perceptual, and thus imaginary) means of representation onto the narrative (and the structure of the narrative), the writing University, ripping open of that seam consequently has to result in a problematization, if not complete undermining of identification. This de-suturing then draws attention to the fabrication of the illusion of whole-ness of both the spectator and the movie. The 1993 film Suture by Scott McGehee and David Siegel provides a good example for such a de- suturing . (15) Suture begins with the attempt of Vincent Towers, a millionaire who has killed his father, to kill his identical half-brother Clay Arlington in a planned car explosion and to pass him off as himself to escape prosecution. The plan goes awry, and Clay survives - a mass of bruises and broken bones, having lost his memory. The movie follows Clay who slowly starts to take on for essay writing children The University, his brother's identity. Learning Brillantmont International School! Still, Clay severely suffers from memory flashbacks which he cannot accept as his own. However, the for school The University, end of the Edith Cowan University, film - which indeed is its starting image as well, since the movie as such is a long flashback - shows Clay, who has by now fully accepted his new identity as Vincent Towers, shooting his brother who has returned to bring his plan to a successful close. After his brother's death, Clay decides to remain the other rather than himself, leading a happy life with his beautiful cosmetic surgeon Renée Descartes. No problem so far.
But, on topics writing children The University of Sheffield, the level of representation, the spectator is constantly held in your argument St. Louis University (INTO) the process of de-suturing. The movie constantly emphasizes the physical similarity of the two brothers (on the children The University of Sheffield, blurb on essay writing Brillantmont, the video jacket, they are actually referred to as 'twin brothers'), which is in fact a prerequisite for the film to function in the first place. Our physical resemblance, remarks Vincent at one point, is striking. Topics For Essay Writing Children The University! However, the two brothers could not be more different: Vincent is white, whereas Clay is an African-American. This perverse logic is consequently reflected in the title of the film: the movie Suture ultimately withholds suture. (16) Lost Highway , I argue, functions in Brillantmont International quite a similar manner. In order to slowly approach this problem, I will in the following comment on certain aspects of the film which I think are most important for an understanding . First, there is the structure of the film. Topics Children! After the credit titles that flicker over the screen - fittingly accompanied by David Bowie's song I'm deranged, a track that sets the tone for what's to come - the movie begins with Fred sitting alone in front of a window, smoking, his image mirrored in persuasive writing International the pane of glass, when suddenly a message comes in through the intercom: Dick Laurent is dead! (29K .wav file) Fred does not - yet - know who this mysterious Dick Laurent is (or better: was), nor who it was who brought the message. Neither does the spectator.
Shortly before the end of the movie, Fred rushes to topics for essay for school children The University his house and your University (INTO), delivers exactly this message - Dick Laurent is topics for essay writing children The University dead! - into his own intercom. Whereas most reviewers have failed to take notice of your St. Louis University this strange structure, in favor of a more straightforward telling of the tale, even the one article that has mentioned it fails to for school of Sheffield acknowledge its real impact: at the conclusion of Lost Highway , when Fred returns to his home to deliver the message that will set the whole narrative in motion again, a new element has entered . the script that was not there the first time around in steps the form of the cop cars waiting outside the home. Topics Writing Children The University Of Sheffield! This illustrates well that repetition is never identical, and that at the core of sameness is difference. (17) If we have a look - or much more importantly - a careful LISTEN - to these two scenes again . right after the Dick Laurant is dead message, you can hear sirens, and a car speeding off . in fact, they're the same sirens (and car speeding off) that occur at learning Brillantmont the end of the movie. So, the reviewer quoted before was right, it is about repetition with a difference, there is a new element, but it's not the cop cars, it is the position of Fred. It is not, however, that he has simply changed from topics for essay writing The University of Sheffield, receiver to sender: he is both sender and receiver, AND AT THE SAME TIME . AND SPACE! In order to approach this mystery, a different topology is needed, a topology accounting for a time-space that differs markedly from Euclidean space and i have University of Applied Sciences, teleological time concepts. A topological figure that makes such things possible is the topics for essay writing for school children of Sheffield, Moebius Strip, and both Lynch and Barry Gifford, with whom Lynch collaborated on your argument University (INTO), the screenplay, have mentioned this figure in for essay for school The University of Sheffield interviews. (18) So, what is a Moebius Strip? DIGRESSION 2: HOW TO MAKE A MOEBIUS STRIP. Take a strip of paper Make sure that it has two sides Take one end of the strip, make a 180 degree twist, and put it to the other end. Tape - or, better, with respect to Holland International Study suture, which is important, as we will see - stitch the two ends together.
As a result, you now have a one-sided figure instead of a two- sided figure. Ill 1: The Moebius Strip. The Moebius Strip subverts the topics writing for school, normal, i.e. Euclidean way of spatial (and, ultimately: temporal) representation, seemingly having two sides, but in steps Ardingly fact having only one. For Essay Writing For School Children Of Sheffield! At one point the two sides can be clearly distinguished, but when you traverse the strip as a whole, the two sides are experienced as being continuous. This figure is one of the topological figures studied and put to use by critical Holland Study, Lacan. (19) On the one hand, Lacan employs the children The University, Moebius Strip as a model to conceptualize the return of the repressed, an issue important in critical Study Lost Highway as well. On the other hand, it can illustrate the way psychoanalysis conceptualizes certain binary oppositions, such as inside/outside, before/after, signifier/signified etc. - and can, with respect to Lost Highway , characterize Fred/Pete. These oppositions are normally seen as completely distinct; the Moebius Strip, however, enables us to see them as continuous with each other: the one, as it is, is the writing for school children The University of Sheffield, truth of the other, and vice versa. Reni Celeste invokes a similar topology, when she comments on Lynch's rewriting of American metaphysics, a rewriting that emphasizes the position where violence meets tenderness, waking meets dream, blond meets brunette, lipstick meets blood, where something very sweet and innocuous becomes something very sick and degrading, at the very border where opposites becomes both discrete and indistinguishable (Celeste). In Lost Highway , the merging of opposites is crucial, and steps Ardingly, the problematization of the inside/outside opposition is a most important issue.
In fact, it is an important issue in Lynch's oeuvre as such - it suffices to for essay for school children The University of Sheffield refer to the scene in Blue Velvet , when the camera intrudes the severed ear that Jeffrey finds, and at the end of the movie, the camera virtually seems to come out of i have due tomorrow of Applied Sciences Jeffrey's ear again. In Lost Highway , the question of inside and outside and their conflation is for essay writing for school children of Sheffield repeatedly posed. On a general level, the diegetic reality of the movie - that what we actually see on the screen, as it were, INSIDE the learning Brillantmont, movie - is composed out of bits and pieces from topics, other movies: Lynch uses the different genres of Hollywood as a kind of quarry. And not only the Hollywood genres: he almost violently exploits his own wealth of images, almost every shot initiates the shock of recognition. One might call this repetitiveness, but, after all, language in general - and especially a distinct film-language such as Lynch's - relies on repetition in order to essay writing Ardingly function.
Another specific example of the children The University, merging of inside and outside apart from the frame-tale (Dick Laurent is dead) already mentioned, is, most important, the scene in which Fred meets the Mystery Man for the first time. In fact, the Mystery Man - simultaneously being inside and International University, outside - can be read at the place where these (and in topics writing fact: all) opposites meet, he is - so to speak - the twist in the Moebius strip. In Lacan's use of the Moebius Strip, the place denoting the suture of the imaginary and symbolic in a way hides the primordial cut that instigated this topological figure in the first place, the cut that is the unconscious (or, in Lacanian terminology: the real). It is by essay writing Ardingly College, suturing off the real that reality for the subject remains a coherent illusion , that prevents the subject from falling prey to the real, that is, falling into psychosis. It is no wonder, then, that the Mystery Man always appears when a change in personality is close. Reni Celeste is topics for essay children The University correct when she observes that in Lost Highway , there are three important fissures: that which exists between one discrete individual and your argument St. Louis University, another, that which exists between the individual and topics for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield, itself, and that which exists between the thing and its representation . Th[e] Nameless Man [Celeste's name for the Mystery Man] . On Education Edith Cowan University! stands between doubles, between passages from one realm to the next, and between each individual and itself (Celeste). However, it is important to note that the topics children The University of Sheffield, structure of the Moebius Strip re-conceptualizes these fissures, allowing them to be seen not so much as fissures, or ruptures, but as places of transition. Lost Highway 's moebial structure disallows the suture of the subject into your argument University (INTO) the narrative.
In contrast to the traditional Hollywood diegesis, in which the narrative unfolds in a straightforwardly telelogical manner - even in spite of displacing strategies such as flashbacks, or the film within the film-motif - Lost Highway in fact presents a multiple diegesis. The more so, since both stories - the story of Fred and writing The University, the story of i have Hanze University of Applied Pete - are not simply related to each other as prequel, and/or the solution of the other. Topics For Essay Writing For School! Although there are definite anchoring points that clearly connect the to be Holland International Center, two stories: the one does not subsume the other without remainder. Topics For Essay For School! It might even be argued that with every identity shift, the narrative produces yet another author/narrator. Keeping to your argument (INTO) the Script. I now want to refer to the attempts of categorization of the movie undertaken by its script writers. The movie has been dubbed by Lynch and Gifford (e.g., in the published version of the screenplay) as A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises. A world where time is children The University dangerously out of essay College control. A terrifying ride down the lost highway. Whereas the time dangerously out of control has already been hinted at writing of Sheffield in the section on the Moebius Strip, I want to use the remaining markers in the following as a kind of steps Ardingly College guideline.
A 21st Century Noir Horror Film. I don't like pictures that are one genre only, so this is writing for school children of Sheffield a combination of things, (20) Lynch has said in a recent interview. Elsewhere, Lynch has articulated his fascination with the noir genre: There's a human condition there - people in trouble, people led into situations that become increasingly dangerous. And it's also about mood and those kinds of things that can only happen at night (Press Kit). I want to University (INTO) focus on the noir genre, not with its foregrounding of amnesia, mistaken and/or changed identities (as, e.g., in topics for essay writing for school Dark Passage ), of which there are obvious references in Lost Highway . I would like to concentrate on the genre's disturbed and disturbing urban environment, on the figures of mobsters and femme fatales , with respect to due tomorrow Hanze the Oedipal constellation that underlies the genre, and I think it is for essay The University mainly in this connection that Lost Highway (and here especially the College, second part, Pete's story) can be regarded as a noir movie. For Essay For School Children The University! (21) In the essay '10 Shades of Noir,' the e-zine Images states that [u]nlike other forms of cinema, the film noir has no paraphernalia that it can truly call its own.
The film noir borrows its paraphernalia from other forms, usually from the crime and detective genres, but often overlapping into thrillers, horror, and even science fiction. (22) Hence Slavoj Zizek's observation that noir might not be a genre of its own kind . [, but] a kind of logical operator introducing the same anamorphic distortion in every genre to which it is applied. (23) Zizek relates this anamorphic distortion to questions of identity which are more often than not played out in an Oedipal scenario. The first part of Lost Highway presents a marital scenario of essay writing steps College uncertainty, anxiety, and unspoken suspicion. It takes place in a house which more resembles a fortress than a cosy home. From the film's beginning, we have the feeling of tension and topics for essay writing children of Sheffield, fear: home, the family unit is the place of trouble and terror. This feeling is persuasive International emphasized by Lynch's masterly employment of the soundtrack.
For Lynch, [h]alf of [a] film is picture . the other half is sound. They've got to work together ( Press Kit ). So, in Lynch's work, the soundtrack is a most important factor to enhance the mood of a scene. For example, during the topics writing for school The University, dialogues between Fred and Renee there is to write an essay of Applied no resonance to for essay writing The University their voices. It is as if the works are spoken in a sound-absorbing environment, the whole spectrum of overtones, all those features that make a human voice seem alive, seems to have been cut. In its dryness, the voices of Renee and i have to write an essay Hanze of Applied, Fred almost seem to enact an absence of sound, or better - an absence of topics writing for school The University of Sheffield room, of the acoustics of space: it's as if they are living in a recording studio covered in acoustic tile.
This soundscape underlines the similarity of this scenario with Lacan's subject being entangled in learning writing Brillantmont International the register of the imaginary, most powerful symbolized in the child's symbiotic relationship with the for essay for school The University, Other, its mother. The incestuous two-ness is underlined by various devices. The strange lights in the Madison living-room, e.g., those lamps that somehow seem to be throwing their light in strange angles on no object but themselves (24) might indeed be read as a hint at this incestuous relationship: all there is is ourselves. As Steven Shaviro has noted, the Madison house in itself is a closed space, folded back upon International Study itself. (25) Similarly, when Fred has sex with his wife, she lies there, showing no emotions - only after the act, she strokes Fred's back, gently, like a mother soothes her child. In such a dyadic world, the child wants to topics The University of Sheffield be everything for its mother, and it wants the mother to be there just for it. (26)
Here, in the Madison marriage, we have a routine-version of this symbiosis. All distance has gone, and, since desire can be said to be exactly relying on this distance between subject and object, desire has gone, as well. Being too near to argument the object of desire causes anxiety. And indeed, there are also disturbing signs of something that threatens to undo this imaginary wholeness. First, there are those strange videotapes. In addition, both Fred and Renee have an uncanny feeling of being observed; note for topics for essay writing for school children The University, example Renee's facial expression when she finds the first video, which might be both explained by the fact that she fears that it might be one of those porn videos she is starring in, and of which Fred does not know anything, or by your argument, the general feeling of being observed, a feeling that takes shape in the fact that they live close to topics for essay writing The University the observatory. The outside literally starts to learning Brillantmont School intrude the inside, and the threat is topics of Sheffield emphasized by to be critical Holland Center, the deep droning sounds (in a cinema with a good sound system, the spectators actually can feel this threat as a uncomfortable feeling in their stomachs . already in topics for essay writing for school of Sheffield Eraserhead , Lynch had made use of this device, the constant droning of a ship's engine underlying the whole movie). Learning Essay! (27) Fred also feels that he is not everything to topics for school children of Sheffield his wife. Like the child, he feels that his mother desires something that is beyond him. Fred remembers/dreams of a night when he was playing saxophone in his club, and he saw Renee disappearing with another guy, Andy . one can see the neon EXIT sign there, and that's exactly how it is: Renee is looking for i have to write Hanze University of Applied Sciences, an exit/escape out of that prison-like symbiosis. So, after he had sex with Renee, Fred's face expresses not only horror, but also the burning question: What am I for you?
What am I for the Other? So, somehow, Fred is precisely dependent on the desire of the for essay writing The University, Other, and therefore it is necessary for on education Cowan University, him that the Other, Renee, exactly remains in topics for essay for school The University of Sheffield her position as love-giving, complete Mother, unspoiled by any lack - and it is such a lack that the mother reveals in her desire for someone else, and also the essay steps Ardingly College, lack in the child, Fred, since he is seen as incapable of topics writing for school filling the lack. Thus, the imaginary scenario is an attempt of Fred's to disavow castration by all means. In the second part of the movie, Fred's story, the Oedipal scenario is persuasive writing Florida University brought to the fore even stronger. Here, now, we have Fred, the young man; Alice, the topics writing children The University of Sheffield, femme fatale ; and Mr. Eddy, the father-like mobster. Father, because both of his age, and because he treats Pete with a kind of paternal attitude.
In Lacanian terminology, the father-figure is accepted by the subject as its ideal-ego, and as such serves for the internalization of the laws of society. However, the flip-side of this benevolent figure of the ideal-ego is the super-ego, the essay writing steps Ardingly, father as perverse father, the exception at the origin of the law. The Master, the Father, he who gives the topics for essay writing The University of Sheffield, Law is an obscene, ferocious figure ( Écrits 256) that imposes a senseless, destructive . almost always anti-legal morality. (28) To imagine what is at stake, it suffices to recall Freud's notion of the Urhorde . The primal father enjoyed all the women of the tribe, he was the writing Florida, chieftain, the for essay for school children The University, law-giver, and when his sons killed him, out of shame the forbid themselves to have all the women. So, at the bottom of the law, of the incest taboo, there is the figure of the One who had been the exception to learning writing Brillantmont International School the rule. In Lost Highway , this becomes clear in writing children The University of Sheffield the scene when Mr. Eddy beats and humilates a driver for tail-gating (85K .wav file). Mr. Eddy explicitly takes recourse to the law in his perverse pleasure, and with Slavoj Zizek it can be argued that it is exactly in the law, in the hyper-correct following of it, that the your University (INTO), pervert finds pleasure. (29) In terms of the Moebius Strip, then, in Lost Highway there is a switch from the desire of the (M)Other to the Name-of-the Father (Lacan's nom/non de pere , which can also mean the No!-of-the-father, as in Mr. Eddy's warning that Alice is his babe). (30) It is important to note that here the spectator learns that Mr.
Eddy is Dick Laurent (the name Dick clearly associating phallic, paternal power), and that Dick Laurent is dead, that the dead father is already from the word go lurking there in the background, representing the for essay writing children of Sheffield, symbolic agency that thwarts the to write due tomorrow Hanze University of Applied, symbiotic relationship of Renee and Fred. This twist parallels the switch from the realm of the pre-oedipal drives, closely related to the mother, to the realm of desire proper, and desire here inextricably related to lack, to the never-receding distance to the object, as can clearly be seen in the sexy love-scene between Fred and Alice - You'll never have me! (79K .wav file) A graphic investigation into parallel identity crises It is the phrase parallel identity crises that interests me the most here. It is usually read in terms of 'double identity,' mostly using the term schizophrenia . There has been quite some misunderstanding about this very term. In 1911, the Swiss psychiatrist Paul Eugen Bleuler replaced Kraepelin's term for a group of for essay for school children The University psychoses, dementia praecox , with the term schizophrenia . Pieces Florida International University! Dementia praecox meant a psychosis of early onset, which Bleuler wanted to capture with the term schizophrenia, meaning literally split mind, since he thought the splitting of psychic functions to be the structuring element of these psychoses. Colin Ross, in his study on Dissociative Identity Disorders, a term including pathologies such as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and the Borderline Syndrome, states that, dementia praecox is actually a better name for this group of disorders [described by Kraeplin] than schizophrenia , while schizophrenia is topics for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield a better name for International Study Center, [Dissociative Identity Disorder] than multiple persona disorder. (31) Hence the topics writing for school of Sheffield, popular notion of schizophrenia as split personality, a misconception that does not account for the fact that schizophrenia is an organic disorder of the brain, and not actually a personality disorder.
In addition to this reading of parallel identity crises in terms of writing International split personality, I want to suggest some further thoughts that account for this split with reference to the structure of the Moebius Strip. Thus, it is not that simple that Pete's story is only the reverse of Fred's story (remember, a Moebius Strip has no such thing as a reverse side - it is one- sided!). Parallel, in the moebial sense of the word , does not mean double or reverse here, but mutual . Pete's story is not only the reverse side of Fred's story, simultaneously Fred's story has to be the reverse side of for school children of Sheffield Pete's story . otherwise the constant references to that night (the film's lacunae) would not make sense. True to the logic of the Moebius Strip, what on a very local level seem to be two sides of the story is actually one. In this moebial twist, the persuasive writing pieces University, truth of the one is the truth of the other, in that they are the topics for essay for school The University of Sheffield, same.
On the level of the images of the movie, this complicity can be shown by a comparison of two scenes that occur more than once in Lost Highway. Essay Writing Steps Ardingly College! These two scenes of Fred in the dark hallway (Renee calling Fred!) and Pete in front of his parents' house (Sheila calling Pete!), viewed in parallel, function like a kind of topics for school of Sheffield worm-hole which traverses the critical International Study Center, different event-levels of the topics for essay for school children The University of Sheffield, movie - I would even argue that if you mirrored those two scenes onto two screens put next to each other, it would have the effect of the one character changing over to the realm/screen of the other. Another 'perspective' of this simultaneous immersion can be seen in writing Florida the transformation scene. Here again, the moebial twist of inside and topics for school The University of Sheffield, outside, one and other, is brought to the fore, this time effected by shots intruding the inside of the to write Hanze University of Applied, body. A last reference I want to make use of is the term psychogenic fugue that the topics writing children, French Production Company of Lost Highway , CIBY 2000, used as a kind of short- hand plot-synopsis in their pre-publicity campaign for the movie. In an interview with David Lynch, Chris Rodley asked Lynch if he was ever aware that such a mental condition, a form of your University (INTO) amnesia which is a flight from reality, actually existed ( Lynch on topics for essay children of Sheffield, Lynch 238-9).
Lynch answered that. the unit publicist on the picture, happened to find it in some medical journal or something. She showed it to us, and it was like Lost Highway . Not literally, but an on education Edith, interior thing can happen that's very similar. Topics For Essay For School Of Sheffield! A certain mental disturbance. But it sounds like such a beautiful thing - 'psychogenic fugue.' It has music and it has a certain force and dreamlike quality I think it's beautiful, even if it didn't mean anything. ( Lynch on writing, Lynch 239) Yet it does mean something, and in this last section of for school The University this article, I want to situate Lost Highway in to write an essay due tomorrow University the context of human pathology.
First of all, I want to return to Lacanian psychoanalysis and to the road metaphor in one and the same gesture. Writing The University Of Sheffield! I have shown elsewhere that in a Heideggerian and persuasive writing pieces Florida University, Lacanian context, the metaphor of the road can serve as a trope not so much for freedom and rebellion, but as a trope for for essay, life as such as detour. (32) Lacan employs the metaphor of the learning essay Brillantmont International, road in his account of the death drive, (33) but he makes it unmistakably clear that such a notion of the drive is far from representing an imaginary and narcissistic freedom from writing children The University of Sheffield, any law whatsoever. Critical Study! Even this drive for freedom depends for its existence on laws, on barriers . freedom needs barriers for their transgression. In his seminar on topics for school children The University, the psychoses, Lacan explores the factors that trigger off a psychosis. Hanze! And again, he takes recourse to the metaphor of the road. In a chapter appropriately named The highway and the signifier 'being a father,' he writes: a succession of minor roads and a highway are not at all the same thing. . The highway isn't something that extends from one road to another, it's a dimension spread out in space, the presencing of an original reality. If I take the highway as an example, it's because . it's a path of communication. . the highway is an undeniable signifier in human experience. (34)
What Lacan is alluding here to is his notion of the point de capiton , the quilting point, which is for essay writing of Sheffield that point which makes sure that some temporary notion of persuasive writing Florida International meaning can be created in language. Again, as in the concept of suture, the for essay writing children The University of Sheffield, metaphor of stitching and sewing comes to the fore, since a quilting point designates an upholstery button, a place where the mattress-makers needle has worked hard to prevent a shapeless mass of International Study Center stuffing from moving to freely about. (35) So a point de capiton is for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield a place where signified and signifier are literally stitched together - this is suture in the register of the symbolic. Like a highway with respect to a system of smaller streets, the quilting point holds that system of discourse together, and steps Ardingly, a minimal number of these points are necessary for a human being to be called normal, and which, when they are not established, or when they give way, make a psychotic ( Seminar III 268-9). According to topics for essay for school of Sheffield Lacan, the most important points de capiton , the highway amongst some minor roads, so to speak, is the name of the father , the paternal metaphor, which is quite important in Lynch's post-patriarchal project. (36) The answer to Lacan's rhetorical question - [w]hat happens when we don't have a highway . ( Seminar III 292), or, in other words, what happens when the highway is lost - is: psychosis. Argument! The foreclosure, what Freud called Verwerfung , of the primordial signifier, the name of the father , is for essay writing children of Sheffield a strategy for evading castration: the subject is castrated by its entry into essay writing steps Ardingly College the symbolic, into language and society. Thus, the denial of this castration leads to writing children The University of Sheffield psychosis. This rejection of the to be critical International Center, symbolic Other that results in the disappearance of the phallic function leads to the subject's distortion of its relation to the social order as well to its loss of sexual identity. As in Freud's case of topics for school of Sheffield Judge Schreber, Fred Madison tries to escape the threat of castration, but he experiences a return of the repressed in the real instead of in the symbolic, in his hallucinations (that is, in his second identity as Pete), because he does not accept the name of the learning essay Brillantmont International School, father , the agency that might disturb his symbiotic relationship with Renee and/or Alice: Dick Laurent is dead! So, the Highway of the for school children The University of Sheffield, title is exactly this quilting point, this suture, that would be necessary for the subject to your argument St. Louis be inscribed into reality, into topics for essay writing children The University of Sheffield a state of normality.
Once this point is lost, once this seam is undone, the subject falls prey to the real, becomes psychotic. To Be Critical Holland International! With respect to the delusional aspects of psychosis, Lacan comments on this buzzing that people who are hallucinating so often depict . this continuous murmur . is for essay writing children The University nothing other than the infinity of these minor paths ( Seminar III 294), these minor paths that have lost their central highway. Your St. Louis University! What is the deep droning sound underlying most of the movie but this continuous murmur? The dissolution of reality is topics writing for school children The University alarmingly hinted at when Fred, being asked to comment on the fact that he does not like video cameras, remarks - I like to remember things my own way. . How I remember them, not necessarily the way they happened. (117K .wav file) (37) Seen in i have Hanze of Applied Sciences this light, the videos might represent the truth the way it happened, that is: the repressed truth of for essay for school Fred (and it is here that the sequence of the burning cabin shot in persuasive writing Florida University reverse gains special significance as a recurring image of that repression). Topics Writing Of Sheffield! Lost Highway treats its topic performatively, not just representationally (Wallace). Thus, taken as metaphor, what is at stake here is the notion of the decentered or split subject. One image in the movie which makes it clear is the St. Louis (INTO), image of the highway itself. There are two variants of topics for essay writing for school this specific shot that are important here. On the one hand, there is a kind of double-exposure of i have due tomorrow Hanze of Applied Sciences this particular image, which indeed hints at topics for essay writing children The University the split in the subject, at the dissociation. (38) On another level, the dotted line can also be read as the subject's attempt at suture, at the stitching of reality and closing off the real again, of which the symptom itself is a way of dealing with. The very term psychogenic fugue in Lynch's statement connects Lost Highway to a pathology that has gained prominence particularly during the persuasive writing International University, few last years - the before mentioned Dissociative Disorders, such as the Borderline Syndrom and MPD - Multiple Persona Disorder. The term psychogenic fugue in particular is closely connected to for essay writing for school The University of Sheffield the latter.
The symptom called psychogenic fugue involves a sudden, unexpected travel away from one's home or customary place of work, with an inability to recall the past, that occurs in to write due tomorrow University the absence of an organic mental disorder . Topics For Essay Writing For School The University! There is persuasive Florida University often the topics of Sheffield, assumption of a new identity. To Be International Study! . Typically, individuals in a fugue state have no memory of their primary identity. When they recover their primary identity, they often have a reciprocal amnesia for the events of the fugue state. Writing Of Sheffield! (39) It is widely acknowledged that this symptom, closely connected to a kind of time-loss in the patient's memory, is your argument St. Louis (INTO) a common feature of MPD, a disorder having entered mass consciousness through the biography, case study and movie The 3 Faces of Eve , starring Joanne Woodward. (40) Like the Borderline Syndrome, MPD is a type of narcissistic personality organization, (41) that is, basically, a disorder of the ego-functions. Whereas in the Borderline Syndrome, the subject is unable to create a coherent ego, that is, to create the illusion of topics for essay writing for school The University autonomy, MPD refers to the splitting of the subject's ego into several compartmentalized personae. Writing Steps! The revised third edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders [ DSM-III-R ] gives the following criteria for MPD: The existence within the individual of two or more distinct personalities or personality states (each with its own relatively enduring pattern of perceiving, relating to and thinking about the environment and one's self).
Each of these personality states at some time, and recurrently, takes full control of the individual's behavior. (42) The main reason for the onset of MPD is to be found in traumatic experiences, one of the most common of which is continuous sexual abuse, mostly in early childhood. MPD thus is a strategy invented by the subject to topics writing children of Sheffield cope with unmanageable stressors, (43) a strategy to escape the to be International, stress of an topics for essay writing children The University of Sheffield, unbearable traumatic event - such as, e.g., the murder of one's own wife. [or that night] Both the Borderline Syndrom and MPD are almost exclusively American pathologies. The question has already been raised, what might be the your argument (INTO), reasons for this being so. Varma, Bouri and Vig, three Indian psychiatrists, have argued that twentieth-century Western man, especially in North America, has shown a special fascination with role playing. The role is adopted with some gain or favourable outcome in mind. The fulfillment of the role may make him act even in a manner contrary to topics for essay writing The University of Sheffield his usual self . The role adopted, like in multiple personality . represents an i have to write an essay of Applied Sciences, expedient or expected behaviour conceived for for essay for school The University, a particular setting. (44) While there are similar kinds of essay Brillantmont International School possession states in other cultures, e.g. Voodoo (Haiti), Latah (Malaysia) or Whitigo (Cree Indians), in the United States the equivalent would have to be looked for in media culture. No wonder, then, that in the literature dealing with MPD, cultural and media influences rate highly.
Ray Aldridge-Morris refers to the fact that North America is inextricably associated with show business . and for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield, the film industry in particular (Aldridge-Morris 108), and Ian Hacking has observed that the different personae tend to be stock television characters, often assuming even names from sitcoms or crime serials . Indeed the rapid changes of character remind one of nothing else than 'zapping.' (45) With regard to your argument University postmodern American consumer culture, Hanjo Berressem has rightly argued that a somewhat cynical case might be made for the idea that multiple or fractal selfs are once more good consumers, because each role, or alter, can be inserted into a separate market. Writing For School Children Of Sheffield! (46) With respect to Lost Highway , it has to be noted that the narrative of the movie is located in Los Angeles, the film metropole. Another point which I think might be worth-wile analyzing is the function of the essay writing, abundance of references to topics writing The University means of media and communication in writing pieces Florida International this movie: videotapes, camcorders, cell phones, phones, the intercom. For Essay For School Children Of Sheffield! The whole movie, as it seems, is writing pieces Florida University penetrated by a kind of communicational electro-smog , and somehow all of these devices are related to very strange and topics for essay writing for school The University of Sheffield, mysterious powers. Another point that in my eyes makes MPD an especially American cultural pathology is your St. Louis (INTO) a fact that relates it to topics for essay writing children American History itself. Commenting on Lost Highway , David Lynch highlighted the initial idea that started the whole thing. What if one person woke up one day and was another person? ( Cinefantastique ). A review of the movie rendered this basic premise in more direct terms - What if I had a second chance? (Review by Steve Biodrowski in Cinefantastique ). This initial question, I argue, reminds one of to be Holland Study Center one the most basic truths of topics writing children The University American History.
John T. Irwin, in his study American Hieroglyphics , has commented on persuasive pieces Florida International, the American desire for topics for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield, a limitless possibility, . an infinite 'second chance' or new beginning, one of whose historical manifestations was the idea of the expanding frontier. (47) Another of these manifestitions, it has to be added, was the idea of the open road . This especially American preoccupation with an ever new beginning, with a second chance, also nicely ties in your argument (INTO) with the cultural pathology of topics for essay for school of Sheffield MPD. The clinical picture of MPD, I argue, is put to use in Lost Highway as a metaphor for writing steps, the split, decentered subject, in a similar way of Allucquere Rosanna Stone's and Sherry Turkle's treatment of this parallel. For Essay Writing Children! Turkle writes: Through contemporary psychoanalytic theory which stresses the decentered subject and through the fragmented selves presented by patients (and most dramatically by patients who present with multiple personality) psychology confronts the ways in i have to write Hanze which any unitary notion of identity is problematic and illusory. What is the self when it functions as a society? What is the self when it divides its labor among its constituent 'alters' or 'avatars'? (48)
I would like to add a final comment on the term psychogenic fugue, not as a clinical phenomenon, but as a term. In his interview with Lynch, Chris Rodley also mentioned the connection with the topics for essay writing for school children The University, musical term fugue , describing it as one theme starts and is then taken up by a second theme in writing pieces Florida answer. But the first continues to supply an accompaniment or counter-theme . You could therefore describe Lost Highway uniquely as a film which truly echoes a musical term. Writing For School Children The University Of Sheffield! . Did you and Angelo Badalamenti discuss the writing steps College, score in terms of a fugue? ( Lynch on Lynch 239). After giving you the additional information that in a fugue, not only one theme is taken up by a second theme, but also by another instrument, another voice, I want to give you Lynch's answer, which I think is quite revealing. He said, Fugues make me feel insane. Topics For Essay Writing Children The University! I can only listen to learning writing a certain amount of a fugue, and then I feel like I'm gonna blow up from the inside out ( Lynch on Lynch 239). (49) And here we are back again, full circle, where we started - Lynch's fascination with the mystery: To me, a mystery is like a magnet.
Whenever there is topics for essay writing for school children of Sheffield something that's unknown, it has a certain pull to article on education University it ( Lynch on Lynch 231). Lacan, in topics for essay writing for school children of Sheffield his evaluation of the mystery, of that which cannot by symbolized, but which nevertheless has immense effects in symbolization, goes even further: The tip of meaning, one can sense it, is the enigma, (50) insofar as meaning as such is something that can never be halted, never be fixed - there is always a remainder. Persuasive Pieces Florida International! This remainder, I argue, that which cannot be symbolized, is on the one hand given in the movie as a kind of excess of the images, a kind of surplus-value of the imaginary which manifests itself in moments of jouissance . On the other hand, the enigma in Lost Highway takes on its most concrete form in the gaps and voids, in the long sequences of darkness that permeate the whole movie. These so-to-speak materialized cuts (sometimes almost 30 seconds of writing The University of Sheffield pure dark screen) provide the space where a) suture is wilfully withheld, and b) where the mystery/enigma somehow can be both felt and filled by the spectator . Writing Pieces Florida International! finally, there is topics writing The University of Sheffield - or: can be - a certain strange version of suture that functions by alining the gaps in learning essay International the cinematic discourse with the for essay writing of Sheffield, desire of the spectator: in filling the writing Ardingly, gaps with his own interpretations/obsessions / images, he becomes an important part of the writing for school, diegetic reality of the movie, a kind of lynchian version of unconscious interactivity. So, what happens to Fred in the end? The very last shot shows him in the process of transformation again.
Lynch had used almost the same scene in his second movie, The Elephant Man , where it denoted the effect of article on education University a traumatic experience on the process of giving birth to for school The University of Sheffield a new subject. I Have To Write Hanze Of Applied Sciences! What will be the result of Fred's transformation? Yet another persona? Or, will he re-transform into Pete, thus adding another temporal twist to the narrative - remember that Pete had been imprisoned once, not for murder, but for car-theft, and what the police will eventually find after Fred has transformed into Pete again, will simply be Pete, in topics for school children The University a stolen car . only your that now, since the cops had found Pete's fingerprints all over Andy's place, Pete will be charged for murder . but, does that explain things? Do we now understand ? In the recent remake of the thriller Nightwatch , now called Freeze , the police inspector turned serial-killer, played by Nick Nolte, philosophizes: Explanations are just fictions to make us feel safe. Otherwise, we would have to admit the unexplained, and that would leave us prey to the chaos around us. For Essay For School! Which is learning writing exactly what it is. Or, in terms of Lost Highway : identity is anything but simple, stable, whole. In the end, we can see what it really is: a terrible collection of for essay writing for school children of Sheffield fragments, fragments like the to be Holland International, parts of Renee's mutilated body. Topics For Essay Writing Children The University Of Sheffield! My attempt at on education Edith Cowan making sense of Lost Highway has tried to topics for essay for school children The University of Sheffield add another such fiction to make one feel safe (even if it in fact might have added even more confusion). (51) As Lacan would have it, [d]esire, in fact, is interpretation itself ( Fundamental Concepts 176).
My reading of Lynch's movie, then, necessarily and inescapably partakes in this desire. It is entangled between ultimate failure and the jouissance that does not serve anything (52) - There is learning School no Truth . But one runs after it all the same ( Fundamental Concepts vii). 1 This paper is a slightly revised version of a talk I gave at the American Studies Colloquium 1998 in Olomouc, Czech Republic. 2 Jonathan Culler. On Deconstruction. Theory and Criticism after Structuralism . Ithaka, New York, 1982, 10. 3 Jacques Lacan.
The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Trans. S. Tomaselli. Topics Writing Children! Cambridge, 1988, 222. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar II ). 4 David Foster Wallace. Article on Lost Highway in Premiere , Sept. 1996. http://www.m ikedunn.com/lynch/lh/lhpremiere.html Subsequently quoted as (Wallace). 5 Mikal Gilmore. Article on Lost Highway and Interview with David Lynch. Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu nn.com/lynch/lh/lhrs1.html.
6 Richard Corliss. 'Mild at Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. 7 Peter Wollen. Readings and Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982, 2. 8 Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and persuasive International, reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. http://www.miked unn.com/lynch/lh/cinelh.html Subsequently quoted as ( Cinefantastique ). 9 Christian Metz.
The Imaginary Signifier. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Brewster and A Guzzetti. Topics For School! Bloomington, 1982. Subsequently quoted as ( The Imaginary Signifier ). 10 Jacques Lacan. crits . French Edition.
Paris, 1966, 774. Subsequently quoted as ( crits ), referring to the English translation crits . A Selection , by A. Sheridan, New York 1977. 11 Cp. Kaja Silverman's account of this concept in her study The Subject of Semiotics. New York, 1983, 194-236, subsequently quoted as ( Subject of Semiotics ). 12 Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24- 34, 25-6. 13 Cp. Stephen Heath.
Questions of article writing on education Edith Cinema . Bloomington, 1981, 'On Suture,' 76-112, 100-1. Cp. also the chapter entitled 'On Screen, in Frame: Film and Ideology' (1-18). 14 Jacques Lacan. The Four Fundamental Concepts of Psychoanalysis . Topics For Essay Writing For School Children! Trans. A. Sheridan. New York, London, 1978, 118. Subsequently quoted as ( Fundamental Concepts ). 15 For another comparative reading of the concept of to write an essay Sciences suture and the movie Suture , cp. Topics Writing Children The University! Hanjo Berressem.
Twisted and Traumatized: Spatial and persuasive pieces Florida, Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and Culture . Topics For Essay Writing For School The University Of Sheffield! Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. 16 Another short reference to yet another movie: John Woo's Face/Off . In this movie, two men exchange identities; that is, they change faces. Suture , Face/Off , and Lost Highway - they all tackle the question of identity and of suture . in a way, all three movies are about identity and its vicissitudes, about the construction of both the subject in the diegetic reality of the movie, and of the spectator. Learning Writing School! Suture thematizes the concept of identity as an effect of (illusory) identification, and ultimately withholds the writing for school of Sheffield, comfort of suture, of a stable position both within diegetic reality and off-screen. John Woo's Face/Off comments on the Aristotelean truth that physiognomy mirrors character. This truth is countered with an almost metaphysical sense of self beyond mere looks, a self, however, that most prominently reveals itself in a language of the body , in small gestures. Persuasive Writing! The suture that holds the movie together is quite literally the seam which stitches Nicholas Cage's face onto John Travolta's head (and vice versa) and 'functions' in fact only if the topics writing The University, spectator is writing Ardingly willing to topics writing The University of Sheffield accept this improbability. In Lost Highway finally, the identity of the on-screen subject is related to different positions it takes with respect to different levels of reality, and, ultimately, to its desire. Since this is a never-ending process, suture, for the spectator, is forever displaced and deferred.
17 Reni Celeste. 'Lost Highway: Unveiling Cinema's Yellow Brick Road.' Cineaction 43 (Summer 1997). To Be Critical Holland Study Center! http://www.mailbase.ac.uk/lists /film-philosophy/files/paper.celeste.html. Subsequently quoted as (Celeste). 18 see e.g. Lynch in the Official Press Kit for Lost Highway , http://www.mike dunn.com/lynch/lh/lhpress.html, subsequently quoted as (Press Kit), and Gifford in his interview for Film Threat , http://www.mi kedunn.com/lynch/lh/lhgifford.html. 19 Cp. e.g. Lacan's discussion of the topics for essay for school children The University, figure of the interior eight in his article on to be Center, 'Science et Verit' (crits, French edition, 855-77), or his 1966 lecture 'Of Structure as an Inmixing of an Otherness Prerequisite to Any Subject Whatever,' published in: The Structuralist Controversy: The Languages of topics for essay writing for school Criticism and your argument St. Louis (INTO), the Sciences of Man . Ed. R. Macksey and E. Donato. Writing For School The University Of Sheffield! Baltimore, 1970, 186-200.
The illustration was taken from this article. 20 Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on Lynch . London, Boston, 1997, 231. Subsequently quoted as ( Lynch on Lynch ). 21 On yet another level, Lost Highway is obviously a noir film in a very literal sense: noir /black is the prevailing color in this movie, especially in the long dark sequences that seem to structure the narrative . 23 Slavoj ZiZek. Tarrying with the Negative . Durham 1993, 9-10. 24 Georg See?len has made similar observation, but has related this observation in his conclusions to the concept of self-reflexivity in Lynch's filmic language. Learning Essay International School! See Georg See?len.
David Lynch und seine Filme . Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Auflage 1997, 187. 25 Steven Shaviro. Stranded in the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion' on Lost Highway : http://www.dhalgren.com/Stranded/18.html. 26 Or, when Fred asks Renee if she will come to the club, she answers that she wants to read, and Fred asks, in disbelief, Read? Read what?
Apart from this articulation of an otherwise unspoken suspicion that Renee might actually be an unfaithful wife, this remark of Fred's also shows his inability (or: unwillingness) to topics for essay writing accept the pieces International University, need for something that goes beyond this symbiosis . maybe, one has to read Read very literally as a hint towards the symbolic, the for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield, agency that in the end very violently disturbs this dual relationship. 27 Michael Chion has already noted in his seminal study Audio-Vision. Sound on Screen . Trans. Claudia Gorbman. Your Argument St. Louis! New York, 1994, that Lynch is one of the topics for school children The University, directors that have liberated film sound from its long sleep of simply accompanying the critical International, images on-screen. Chion points out that Lynch is one of those who have developed the soundtrack into for essay for school of Sheffield the direction of a Sound Film - Worthy of the Name (141). 28 Jacques Lacan. University! The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by J. Forrester.
Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, 102. 29 see Slavoj Zizek. The Plague of Fantasies . New York, London, 1997. 30 see Slavoj Zizek's interpretation of Hitchcock's Psycho with respect to this moebial twist in Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to know about Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992. 31 Colin Ross. Dissociative Identity Disorder. Topics Writing For School Of Sheffield! Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality . New York, 1997.
32 See Chapter 7, ' On the road : The Road Novel and the Road Movie,' of my book An Art of Desire. Argument! Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999, 159-72. 33 Cp. Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book II: The Ego in Freud's Theory and in the Technique of Psychoanalysis 1954-55 . Topics For Essay! Trans.
S. To Be Critical! Tomaselli. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988, where he comments on the roads of life (81) and describes life as a dogged detour (232) towards death. 34 Jacques Lacan. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan. Topics Writing For School Children! Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by R. Grigg. New York, 1993, 290-1. Subsequently quoted as ( Seminar III ). An example might clarify what is at stake here. Kafka, in his Letter to the Father , takes recourse to University (INTO) another topographical metaphor, referring to his father in writing The University terms of a dimension spread out in space : Sometimes I imagine the map of the world spread out and you stretched diagonally across it. I Have Hanze University! Franz Kafka. Topics For Essay Writing For School Children! Letter to the Father . Prague, 1998, 65.
35 Malcolm Bowie. Lacan . To Be Critical Center! London, 1991, 74. 36 This term is Anne Jerslev's. See her study David Lynch i vore jne. Copenhagen, 1991. 37 Thus, the whole second part of the movie (Pete's story), can be read as Fred's attempt to remember things his own way, even to re-member, in the literal sense of the word, both his fragmented sense of self and Renee's dis-membered body . 38 A more hypermaterialistic rendition of the split subject is the scene in which Andy's head is virtually split by the glass table . it's as literal as you can get. 39 Frank W. Writing Children Of Sheffield! Putnam.
Diagnosis and persuasive Florida International, Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. 13-4. Subsequently quoted as (Putnam). 40 The case of Eve has just recently been found out to have been faked by the analysts. 41 Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. 42 American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III-R . Washington, 1987, 106.
43 Ray Aldridge-Morris. Multiple Personality. An Exercise in Deception . Hove, 1989, 107. Subsequently quoted as (Aldridge- Morris). 44 Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Psychotherapy 35 (1981), 1. 45 Ian Hacking. 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the topics writing children of Sheffield, Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31, 11. 46 Hanjo Berressem. Learning Writing International School! 'Emotions Flattened and Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Emotion in topics for essay children The University of Sheffield Postmodernism . Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307, 293.
47 John T. Irwin. American Hieroglyphics . The Symbol of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . New Haven and London, 1980, 112. 48 Sherry Turkle. Constructions and Reconstructions of the St. Louis University (INTO), Self in Virtual Reality . Quoted in for essay writing for school The University of Sheffield Allucquere Rosanne Stone. 'Identity in Oshkosh.' J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.). International! Posthuman Bodies . Topics For Essay Writing For School Children Of Sheffield! Bloomington, 1995, 23-37, 34. 49 Another, I think, most revealing information with respect to the fugue: Douglas R. To Write An Essay Due Tomorrow University Sciences! Hofstadter, in his book Gdel, Escher, Bach: An Eternal Golden Braid , comments on the compositions of Johann Sebastian Bach, which, in his time, were judged as quite notorious. Like Lynch's works, they were either thought to be pompous and confused, whereas others hailed them as masterpieces. For Hofstadter, Bach's fugues in for essay writing for school general, and especially his highly complex fugue Ein Musikalisches Opfer/A Musical Offering , are of special importance for his study because of Brillantmont School their structure, which is the structure of what Hofstadter calls strange loops. A most prominent example of such a strange loop is . yes, it's the for essay writing children, Moebius Strip again. And, finally, believe it or not, the original term for the fugue was the Latin term Ricercar , which means - enigma, mystery. Cp.
Douglas R. Hofstadter. On Education Edith Cowan! Gdel, Escher Bach. An Eternal Golden Braid . New York, 1979. 50 Jacques Lacan. 'Vorwort zur dt. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991, 7. 51 Only after I finished this article (and the topics for essay for school of Sheffield, talk on which this article is writing Florida based), Troels Degn Johansson, Department of Film Media Studies of the University of Copenhagen, pointed out an article to me in cinetext by Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj ?i?ek.' This article only mentions in passim some of the aspects I have tried to for essay The University of Sheffield discuss in more detail in this paper, so, both articles somehow respond to each other like the two sides of a Moebius Strip as well . Edith Cowan University! cp. http://st1hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/cinetext/magazine/circvit.html. 52 Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . Topics Writing Children Of Sheffield! Paris, 1975, 10. My translation. American Psychiatric Association. DSM-III- R . To Be Critical Holland! Washington, 1987. Ray Aldridge-Morris.
Multiple Personality. Topics Writing Children The University Of Sheffield! An Exercise in Deception . Hove, 1989. Hanjo Berressem. Twisted and i have to write an essay of Applied, Traumatized: Spatial and Temporal Loops in American Literature, Art, and Culture . Habilitationsschrift, Aachen 1997. ---- . 'Emotions Flattened and Scattered: Borderline Syndromes and topics for essay writing children The University of Sheffield, Multiple Persona Disorders in Contemporary American Fiction.' in: G. Hoffmann, A. Hornung (ed.). Emotion in Postmodernism . Heidelberg, 1997, 271-307. Robert Blanchet: ' Circulus Vitiosus : Spurensuche auf David Lynchs Lost Highway mit Slavoj Zizek.' http://st1hobel.phl.univie.ac.at/cinetext/magazine/circvit.html. Malcolm Bowie.
Lacan . London, 1991. Michael Chion. Learning Essay School! Audio-Vision. Sound on Screen . Trans. Claudia Gorbman. New York, 1994. Clary, W.F., Burstin, K.J., Carpenter, J.S. Topics For Essay For School Children! 'Multiple personality and borderline personality disorder.' Psychiatric Clinics of North America , 7 (1984), 89-100. Richard Corliss. 'Mild at writing Florida Heart.' TIME , April 7, 1997, 77. Mikal Gilmore. Article on topics for essay for school, Lost Highway and Interview with David Lynch. Essay! Rolling Stone , March 6, 1997. http://www.mikedu nn.com/lynch/lh/lhrs1.html.
Ian Hacking. Writing The University Of Sheffield! 'Multiple Personality Disorder and Its Hosts.' History of the Human Sciences 5.2 (1992), 3-31. J. Halberstam, I. Livingston (ed.). Posthuman Bodies . Bloomington, 1995. Stephen Heath. Your Argument St. Louis University (INTO)! Questions of Cinema . Bloomington, 1981. Bernd Herzogenrath. An Art of Desire. Reading Paul Auster . Amsterdam and Atlanta, 1999.
Douglas R. Hofstadter. Gdel, Escher Bach. An Eternal Golden Braid . New York, 1979. John T. Topics Children Of Sheffield! Irwin. American Hieroglyphics. The Symbol of the Egyptian Hieroglyphics in the American Renaissance . Persuasive Pieces Florida University! New Haven and London, 1980. Anne Jerslev. David Lynch i vore jne . Copenhagen, 1991. Franz Kafka. For Essay The University! Letter to writing Edith Cowan the Father . Prague, 1998. Jacques Lacan. crits . Paris, 1966.
-----. crits . A Selection. Topics For Essay For School The University Of Sheffield! Trans. Your St. Louis University! A. Sheridan, New York 1977. -----. Le Sminaire Livre XX: Encore . For Essay Writing For School Children The University Of Sheffield! Paris, 1975. -----. 'Vorwort zur dt. Ausgabe meiner Schriften.' in: Schriften II . Weinheim, 1991. -----.
The Four Fundamental Concepts of persuasive Florida University Psychoanalysis . Trans. A. Sheridan. New York, London, 1978. -----. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan Book I: Freud's Paper on Technique 1953-54 . Transl. by J. Forrester. For Essay Writing Of Sheffield! Cambridge, 1988. -----. The Seminar of Jacques Lacan.
Book III: The Psychoses, 1955-56 . Transl. by i have an essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences, R. Grigg. New York, 1993. Christian Metz. The Imaginary Signifier. Psychoanalysis and the Cinema . Trans. C. Britton, A. Williams, B. Brewster and A Guzzetti. Bloomington, 1982. Jacques-Alain Miller. 'Suture (elements of the logic of the signifier).' Screen 18:4, (1977/78), 24-34. Frank W. Putnam.
Diagnosis and Treatment of Multiple Persona Disorder . New York, 1989. Chris Rodley (ed.). Lynch on Lynch . London, Boston, 1997. Colin Ross. Dissociative Identity Disorder. For Essay For School Children Of Sheffield! Diagnosis, Clinical Features, and Treatment of Multiple Personality . To Be! New York 1997.
Georg See?len. David Lynch und seine Filme. For Essay Writing For School Of Sheffield! Marburg und Berlin, 3. erw. Auflage 1997. Steven Shaviro. Stranded in the Jungle . (forthcoming book; excerpts can already be found on Steven Shaviro's homepage; see his chapter 'Intrusion:' http://www.dhalgren. com/Stranded/18.html. Kaja Silverman. International Study Center! The Subject of for essay for school of Sheffield Semiotics . New York, 1983.
Frederick Szebin and Steve Biodrowski. 'A surreal meditation on love, jealousy, identity and reality.' Cinefantastique , April 1997. http://www.miked unn.com/lynch/lh/cinelh.html. Varma, V.K., Bouri, M., Wig, N.N. 'Multiple personality in India: Comparison with hysterical possession states.' American Journal of Psychotherapy 35 (1981). Peter Wollen. Readings and your University (INTO), Writings: Semiotic Counter-Strategies . London, 1982. Slavoj Zizek (ed.). Everything you always wanted to know about Lacan (but were afraid to ask Hitchcock) . New York, London, 1992. Slavoj Zizek. Tarrying with the Negative . Durham 1993.
Slavoj Zizek. The Plague of Fantasies . For Essay Writing Of Sheffield! New York, London, 1997.
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Philosophy essay competition - Philosophy - The University of Sheffield
The Internet Censorship Controversy. In order to fully understand the current situation we must first examine the past. Censorship has been an issue before with a tragic outcome. It seems like when new technology arrives the government tries to rush in and regulate it. This was the for essay children The University case with the US. Postal Service literature in learning writing Brillantmont public schools and libraries. Recently the government tried to for essay for school The University, regulate the telephone companies, and now laws have been written about the Internet. The first reported government censorship was back in writing Brillantmont International School 1864 when a postmaster general discovered a large amount of nude pictures were being sent to writing children, the Civil War troops. An Essay University! Laws were quickly passed to ban sending [any] obscene book[s], pamphlet[s], picture[s], print[s], or other publication[s] of vulgar and indecent character through the US. mail. 
This was just the beginning. An influential figure, Anthony Comstock, who lived at the same time, took measures to topics for essay for school of Sheffield, have literature in America censored. Many classics with passages that may have been racy or deemed offensive to some were quickly banned from publishing, some were even recalled and destroyed. The books where not judged as a whole works, but on a simple phrase or passage. Your St. Louis! This went on for 60 years, until it was challenged one day by a small publishing company who decided to publish a book that was previously deemed obscene. The case was taken to court and the book was ruled not to be obscene because of the couple passages that had previously qualified it as being such. The ruling was that the book with its few obscene passages did not make the entire book obscene. As a result of this ruling, the guidelines of what is writing children The University of Sheffield considered obscene have been modified.  Other issues about censorship have been raised in article on education Edith Cowan University the past decade concerning books read by high school seniors.
The issue of censorship was brought into English classes in high schools. It was debated whether Huckleberry Finn was an appropriate piece of literature to be read and discussed in for essay The University of Sheffield the classrooms. University Of Applied! Some parents were outraged that a book that used one racial word and one passage that had an adult male and a younger male together nude on the river, was going to be read in the classroom. They judged the whole book by one word and a single passage. Writing Children The University! Luckily for the students, they were given a chance to read the classic and other books that raise the same issues. [8 10] The Development and Growth of the Internet. The Internet has had massive growing within the last few years. Four years ago, many computer literate individuals were not exposed to the Internet nor aware of the existence of the writing Edith Cowan University term. For School Children The University! Today, the Internet is mentioned almost daily within many newspapers.
More than ten million Americans have a computer at home and most of these owners have access to the Net. It has become so effortless to sit down at a computer and writing Edith Cowan, just click from one page to another for hours. This leisure activity, more commonly referred to as Internet surfing, can be amusing no matter what the age of the individual. There are many children that have access to a computer either at for essay writing for school children of Sheffield, home or in their schools and they know how to use it to surf the learning writing Brillantmont net. However, college students have more exposure than most age groups for topics writing children, several reasons. First and foremost, most universities issue an e-mail address to due tomorrow University of Applied Sciences, every student that is registered for classes. Furthermore, numerous universities include the fee for the Internet service within their tuition rates and thus full time students have guaranteed access. Topics For Essay! In addition, many professors urge students to use the Net (i.e. to get information for reports) to keep students updated with the technology that is essay Brillantmont available to them. Topics For Essay Children The University Of Sheffield! Nevertheless, the use of the i have an essay due tomorrow Hanze Sciences Internet is expanding rapidly. It is indisputable that there will be more growth within the topics for school future. With all this traffic on the Internet, there must be an writing International, adequate variety of material available for all of topics of Sheffield, these surfers. 
Background To the Censorship Debate. Prosecutors in Tennessee won convictions, now on appeal, for material they obtained from a computer bulletin board in Milpitas, Calif., based on Memphis standards of what is obscene. Pornography is a major market that is rocketing itself into today's society, however, it is not the only controversial topic that has found a place cyberspace. Both public and private interest groups have shown great concern for the content of material available via the Internet. They are driven by deeply rooted religious and ethical beliefs. They feel that the Internet is a medium that is being abused to allow extremists, unethical, and i have an essay due tomorrow of Applied, immoral individuals to corrupt society. 
Congress shall make no law respecting an establishment of religion, or prohibiting the free exercise thereof; or abridging the freedom of speech, or of the press; or the right of the topics writing for school children The University people peaceably to your argument, assemble, and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances.  As can be seen from above, The First Amendment includes the topics writing children The University of Sheffield Freedom of Speech. The censorship and pornography along with other controversial topics are all intertwined within the First Amendment. The Founding Fathers acted with premeditation and forethought when in adopting the Bill of Rights they placed the freedom of information at the top of the first ten amendments to the Constitution. However, every generation since 1790--in fact, virtually every decade--has redefined and reinterpreted the First Amendment. I Have To Write An Essay Due Tomorrow Hanze University Sciences! Yet freedom of speech is not absolute; laws exist regarding libel, obscenity, national security, access to government information, and regulation of electronic mass communications.  Today the United States faces the topics for essay writing for school of Sheffield significant challenge of your University, restoring the for essay for school The University of Sheffield traditions of free speech and diversity of information. Free speech involves the use of the Internet to to be critical, express the mass quantities of ideas across the nation and across the globe. To many people, new information and communications technologies are the link between the problems of yesterday and the possibilities of tomorrow.
The gulf between the computer fluent and nonfluent will become more serious as more and more information is for school The University of Sheffield available only through computerized databases and essay steps College, information services.  FIGHTING WORDS: In the writing children of Sheffield 1942 case of Chaplinsky v. New Hampshire, the writing Florida International University Supreme Court held that so-called fighting words. which by their very utterance inflict injury or tend to incite an immediate breach of the peace are not protected under the First Amendment and can be punished. The Court based its decision on the concept that such utterances are of slight social value as a step to truth. LIBEL: In the 1964 case of New York Times Co. v. Sullivan, the Supreme Court held, in a ground breaking decision, that defamatory falsehoods published about public officials are not protected by the First Amendment and can be punished if the offended official can prove that his/her accuser published the for essay writing for school children falsehoods with actual malice -- that is, with knowledge that the statement was false or with reckless disregard of whether it was false or not. While the Court's decision addressed a particular type of common law libel, other kinds of libelous statements are also punishable. COMMERCIAL SPEECH: In the 1976 case of Virginia Pharmacy Board v. Virginia Citizens Consumer Council , the Supreme Court struck down a state ban on prescription drug advertising on First Amendment grounds. However, commercial speech -- which includes advertising, financial and credit reports, and the like -- still has far less First Amendment protection than other speech.
Generally, it can be banned if it is, on the whole, misleading or takes undue advantage of its audience. OBSCENITY: Obscene material has historically been excluded from First Amendment protection which has led to the official banning of such classics as James Joyce's Ulysses and to write an essay University of Applied Sciences, D.H. Lawrence's Lady Chatterley's Lover, as well as the criminal prosecution of countless publishers, book distributors, storekeepers, film distributors and artists.  Cases In Which the First Amendment Did Not Protect. There are in topics writing for school of Sheffield addition to case law, several laws that contradict the freedom of speech.
Libel, slander, defamation of character, hate speech, and sexual harassment are common examples. Pornography laws and the freedom of expression also fall in the category of speech. To Be International Study Center! This is not to say that any of these laws are necessary or to argue the moral value of these laws but to establish that laws already exist against the first amendment. So we agree that, although it is plainly stated in the Constitution, there are several laws restricting speech in the U.S.  Now, the question remains about topics for essay writing how the Internet affects the protection of speech. The Internet is to be critical Study Center a medium of communication like television, periodicals, and radio.
The Internet has the added complication of topics writing The University, serving people from all over the world on one medium. So whose laws apply? Pornography is illegal in the Middle East, so can an American posting images on the Internet that someone in Saudi Arabia downloads be held liable? If a person in Japan posts a message that someone in argument the US finds offensive or demeaning, can the American sue according to topics writing The University of Sheffield, US law, or does the case fall under Japanese jurisdiction? Or, if this type of offense is not illegal according to Japanese law, is there any basis at all for judicial intervention? So, if there was to be a universal Freedom of Speech law, it would have to essay College, encompass all participating countries' interpretations of Freedom of Speech, as well as define what is and what is not allowed under such a law. Is such a compromise possible? [2 10]
These and other questions are still to be answered by topics for essay writing for school society as the Internet develops throughout the globe. More issues are evolving as different events occur because of the wide spread and inevitable use and abuse of the to be critical Holland Center Internet.  Unfortunately, the Supreme Court's long-standing unwillingness to strike down all obscenity laws as unconstitutional infringements on freedom of expression has allowed censorship to topics The University of Sheffield, flourish at various times in our history because of public officials' tendency to apply the Court's narrow limits in over board ways. This remains a problem with all of the limited exceptions to article on education Edith Cowan, the First Amendment.  The Supreme Court decided that there was a class of material called obscenity which is not covered by the First Amendment. It was odd that there was a category which was not clearly defined. This means that an image or document may be illegal due to obscenity in one community and may be perfectly legal and protected by the First Amendment in another community. This would seem to indicate that what the Supreme Court calls obscenity is nothing more than the topics for essay children thinly veiled prejudice of the governing bodies in those communities.  With the passing of this act, it would be obvious that news groups such as alt.binaries.erotica would immediately be removed. However, to this date these sites and others still exist. There are still many brave soles that post their material, even though the Communication Decency Act is to be critical Holland International Center being fully enforced.
The controversy still continues today. For more information on children The University, the Communication Decency Act click here. The Carnegie Mellon University Situation. Rimm's study has been cited as being exhaustive, when now it is looked at as a fraudulent exaggeration of the current state. The study was said to writing Florida International University, examine over 900,000 images, 83.5 percent of which were pornographic. An article written about the Rimm report and subsequent hysteria said that the article is fraudulent and based on the description of slightly more than 4,000 images.  The main argument against the action taken by CMU to restrict access to the news groups that had sexually explicit content was that the discussion of writing for school children The University, sexual matters of any sort is Constitutionally protected speech under the First Amendment to the Constitution. This argument has no effect on i have an essay due tomorrow Hanze of Applied, the alt.binaries news groups that were among the groups to be removed from access. 
Carnegie Mellon reacted to Rimm's study in accordance to Pennsylvania state censorship laws which prohibit the distribution of sexually explicit materials to minors. The law states that No person shall knowingly disseminate.. explicit sexual materials to a minor. For Essay Children! When the news of the University's decision reached the student body, a rally was organized to address the students' concerns and ideas on article on education Edith, the subject. For Essay The University Of Sheffield! The students claimed that it was not that they wanted to be able to have access to pornography but that it was their right to make their own decisions guaranteed by the First Amendment. Vic Walczk, the learning School Pittsburgh ACLU executive director who was a speaker at that rally, stated that For well-established reasons of free speech, this type of censorship is not only wrong, but very dangerous. Topics For School Children Of Sheffield! The Internet is analogous to persuasive Florida, a library and libraries are protected from obscenity prosecutions under Pennsylvania law. The Pennsylvania state censorship laws exempt any library of for school children of Sheffield, any school, college, or university from this law. Writing Steps Ardingly College! However, the statement that the Internet and particularly Usenet news groups are analogous to a library appears to be weak.
This statement is only supported by for essay for school the later statement which says, by providing wide access to the Internet, the University is, in effect, functioning as an electronic librarian.  For more material on Holland International Study, this topic refer to the following sites: One side argues that it is difficult to writing, supervise their children at all times. Due to this fact, there must be some other way to censor the material that is available on the Net. The Internet should not be a place where children can have easy access to sexually explicate material. After all, movies have ratings and now a television chip is being developed to censor what can be viewed on television by children. Therefore, the Internet should also have a way for censoring the pornography. Argument University!  Others argue that parents are responsible for the activity of their children and therefore should also be held responsible when their children are misusing a computer. Topics Children The University! This would eliminate any need for government involvement in the issue.
The Internet should be a place where any material can be posted with easy access. It should be able to be used by anyone with a connection to the Net. Some support the argument with the Holland International Center fact that most pornography sites have a cover page that warns all individuals who accidentally stumble upon the location. Children stumble upon these sites but many cannot download them. They must be knowledgable in order to download the files and use a viewer for for essay writing children The University of Sheffield, the pornography.  Alternatives to Governmental Censorship. Several individuals and organizations have suggested methods whereby information providers rate themselves, or are rated by other organizations, just as U.S. films are rated now. The best known plan is PICS, announced in an essay due tomorrow Hanze Sciences October 1995 by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3). In this proposal, any organization could assign ratings and parents could use them to topics for essay The University of Sheffield, filter incoming Web pages. Article On Education University! Internet Filtering Systems, Inc. For Essay Of Sheffield! (IFSI) creates a product claiming to promote the to be critical Holland International PICS system. Filtering based on origin.
Certain news groups such as the alt.binaries.pictures.erotica set are dedicated to sexual material. By blocking these well-known sites you can keep your children from seeing the vast majority of sexual discussion. Surf Watch is an example of an existing product that contains a set of sites where access is denied; you can add your own list of sites to it. Filtering based on keywords and key phrases. Another approach is to for essay for school children of Sheffield, make a list of obscene words and phrases or ones that herald the coming of content you find objectionable. St. Louis (INTO)! Then you force the system to stop downloading material when these are found. The technology can be applied to both public postings and private email. Net Nanny is an existing product that uses this approach. Subscription to an approved service. You can buy online access from an organization that monitors all content for you. Prodigy was originally set up to operate this way but it loosened its policy after complaints (and many people also claimed that it never succeeded in blocking objectionable messages).
Religious or commercial organizations can offer lists of approved sites, and you can limit your access to those. Prosecution of child pornographers. Laws already exist against child pornography and have been used on electronic networks. No new laws are needed that single out electronic media regarding this particular issue.  Guidance and discussion.
This is topics writing for school of Sheffield ultimately the least coercive and most positive approach. Just as you caution children in how to act when they go out in public, you can talk to persuasive writing pieces, them about what's online and help them protect themselves. It is for essay for school children The University of Sheffield also felt that morals and ethics should be taught in the home because children are exposed to all sorts of material. [13 15] As with the Internet, much debate and many problems have to resolved concerning the topic of adult bulletin boards. I Have To Write Due Tomorrow Hanze Of Applied! Consider the tale of the Robert and Carleen Thomas.
The couple were system operators (sysops) of their private members-only Bulletin Board System (BBS) in California. The BBS provided for children of Sheffield, its members sexually explicit pictures and learning writing International School, chat groups. One day a web-surfer from Memphis Tennessee happened to topics writing children, cross the Thomases's BBS and found the material offensive. The Tennessee man reported to the U.S. Postal service his findings.
After an investigation the Thomases were indicted, tried in a Memphis federal court and Brillantmont International, convicted on topics for school The University of Sheffield, the charge of distributing obscene materials in interstate commerce. As you can see there are difficulties in the way the community standards are interpreted. I Have An Essay Of Applied Sciences! Although in their home state of California the topics for essay for school The University of Sheffield materials that they offered to their users were not considered obscene, they were in Tennessee. It has always been that the individual's right to own obscenity in their own home is protected as long as they: 1) do not sell it, 2) display it publicly, 3) or show it to children.  The Thomases have appealed the case and have offered in your St. Louis University their defense that if the same Memphis man had come to for school The University of Sheffield, California and purchased the same type of due tomorrow Hanze University, sexual explicit material and transported it back to topics for essay writing for school The University of Sheffield, Tennessee that he would not have broken any laws. Essay Steps Ardingly! They feel that on the same grounds the topics for essay writing for school children Memphis man traveled virtually through the Internet to their BBS.
Unfortunately, in the past the Courts have thrown out arguments involving such a defense.  A good example that relates to anonymity on essay Brillantmont School, the Internet is the usage of the phone and caller identification (ID). Before caller ID, phone calls were always anonymous. There was no way to know who was calling you until the caller mentioned their name. Caller ID identifies each caller with the phone number they are calling from which limits the amount of anonymity. The Internet is for essay a lot like a caller ID because each person on writing University, the Internet has a user name which is displayed. Now there are services that allow for users to become anonymous which are like a phone without the topics children of Sheffield caller ID.  There are some advantages to your University (INTO), anonymity.
For example, users can post messages without being identified. Therefore, they do not have to worry that their statement can somehow affect their life. Certain people are in very sensitive situations that prohibit them from revealing their true identity. A long list of situations requiring anonymity are at this site on the Internet: http://www.oberlin.edu/ A disadvantage to for school, anonymity is that users will take advantage of the freedom. Everyday, Internet users are bombarded by messages from all over the world.
Most of the messages are harassing and obtrusive. Some users will post these message under the anonymous user name. An example of this happening in the real world is slanderous graffiti. However, messages on the Internet are broadcast to persuasive writing University, everyone in the world while graffiti is localized. It is the people who are taking advantage of this freedom of speech and causing the Internet to become a virtual world filled with hate. If these people continue, they may cause certain organizations and governments to prohibit certain forms of speech. In essence, the writing for school The University abusive senders of messages will cause the Internet to become regulated, something that everyone fears.  While we as U.S. citizens may enjoy protection from the actions of St. Louis University (INTO), other governments, it is difficult to know what would happen to children of Sheffield, citizens of other governments committing the same actions.
There are ways to avoid the question. With the availability of both anonymous remailers and PGP software, computer users in article Edith University foreign countries with more restrictive laws regarding free speech could be able to express themselves more freely, at least in the online world. Topics Writing! This possibility could lead to writing Brillantmont International School, greater freedom for those in less open societies.  The idea that the for essay for school children of Sheffield Internet could be a liberating force is an to write due tomorrow Hanze of Applied, exciting one. While the U.S. government has attempted to curtail and prevent the exportation of cryptographic technology such as Pretty Good Privacy by topics children Phil Zimmerman, given the St. Louis University (INTO) dynamics of the Internet, and the rapidity with which data may be transferred online, it is almost certain the programs like PGP are in wide distribution globally. Rather than attempting to topics for essay for school, prevent foreigners from acquiring programs that encrypt data (disregarding for the sake of argument the very real and valid assertion that hostile governments could gain our encryption technology and use it for their own ends), perhaps the U.S. Learning Brillantmont School! government should encourage the distribution of such programs. If such programs were available, the encouragement to democracy and dissidents would be immense.
Dissidents living in for essay writing The University of Sheffield oppressively governed countries could discuss issues of relevance to critical Holland International Study, them openly on a news group. Simply by using existing cryptography software (i.e. PGP), such people would be safe from the topics for essay of Sheffield prying eyes of their government. Dissidents using such encryption would be secure from the governmental agencies that would hope to scan all electronic message traffic passing through gateways. Anonymous remailers could also assist those who would hope to post dangerous messages in College news groups. In fact, this use can be seen in many USENET news group postings. 
A New York state judge ruled that Prodigy, which routinely screens postings for obscene or potentially libelous content, does in fact exert a form of editorial control over content on its system and could be sued as a publisher. Topics Writing Children! Prodigy is appealing the state court's decision. [2 4]. After taking a close look at the case mentioned above, it is steps Ardingly obvious that it is unreasonable to expect a service to physically read every message for topics writing The University of Sheffield, content. This is Hanze of Applied exactly what would be required. It would be virtually impossible to electronically scan every message for libelous content. Also, as can be seen from a recent Virginia Tech case, the point of origin of the message may effect a person's right to post that message. At Virginia Tech, a student sent an offensive e-mail to a gay online service. The university took action against this student because he used a vt.edu suffix for his return address.
This was considered by the university to be the same as using university letterhead. In a recent local PBS special, the for school children director of writing on education Cowan, communication services for Virginia Tech stated that for the most part, Virginia Tech considers network access to writing The University, students to be a pay service, but that when users post messages with a return address of vt.edu, they are acting in some respects as a representative of Virginia Tech. Your! The director went on to state, the university has the right to take action against of Sheffield, those who make statements while acting as an electronic spokesman for the college. This would imply in argument University (INTO) some sense, that Virginia Tech is saying that it will attempt to control the content of messages which originate from its service. For Essay Writing For School Children! Again, the difficulty which Prodigy faced comes into play.   Freedom of Speech by Amy Lee.  Freedom to CyberTalk by Alex Lerner.  Freedom of Speech on the Internet by Chris Ekman.  Freedom of Speech and Florida International, the Internet by David Mackie.
 Thoughts on Net.Censorship by Eli Burke.  Censorship and the Internet by Herb Miller.  Censorship of the Internet by Jeff Englebrecht.  Censorship and the Internet by writing for school children of Sheffield James Ogura.  Censorship: Who is right? by Leslie Clatterbuck.
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college essay autism Is Asperger#146;s syndrome/High-Functioning Autism necessarily a disability? Departments of Experimental Psychology and Psychiatry, University of Cambridge. Invited submission for Special Millennium Issue of Developmental and Psychopathology Draft: 5 th January 2000. Acknowledgements : I am grateful to Bridget Lindley, David Andrews, Liane Holliday-Willey, Chris Wilson, Temple Grandin and Therese Jolliffe, for discussion of these ideas. David Andrews can be credited for having introduced this topic at for essay children an early point, whilst Uta Frith and Franky Happe can be credited for their influential notion of 'cognitive style'.
Finally, Dante Cicchetti and i have to write an essay due tomorrow of Applied, Alan Sroufe provided excellent editorial advice. This article considers whether Asperger Syndrome (AS) or high-functioning autism (HFA) necessarily lead to disability or whether AS/HFA simply lead to 'difference'. It concludes that the term 'difference' in relation to AS/HFA is a more neutral, value-free, and fairer description than terms such as 'impairment', 'deficiency' or 'disability'; that the term 'disability' only topics for essay applies to the lower functioning cases of autism; but that the term 'disability' may need to writing pieces Florida International be retained for AS/HFA as long as the topics for school, legal framework only provides financial and other support for individuals with a disability. Two models are summarized which attempt to define in what way individuals with AS/HFA are 'different': the central coherence model, and the folk psychology-folk physics model. The challenge for research is to test the value of such models and to precisely characterise the differences in cognitive style. We have grown familiar with the persuasive writing University, idea that autism is a 'psychiatric condition', a 'disorder', a 'disability' or a 'handicap'.
Ever since Kanner's description of the 'aloneness' of these children , psychiatry has labelled and categorised them as abnormal, ill, and deficient. Through the changing definitions of autism enshrined in writing for school, successive editions of both DSM (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual, published by writing Florida, the American Psychiatric Association) or ICD (International Classification of Diseases, published by the World Health Organisation), we have had a single view of autism thrust upon us: an essentially negative view in which children or adults with autism are characterised as impaired . This article challenges the for school children The University of Sheffield, received view through a subtle but important shift of emphasis. Rather than conceiving of autism as a deficiency, it instead considers if autism might be better characterised as a different cognitive style. This important idea can be traced to Uta Frith's book , and has been recently discussed in learning writing Brillantmont School, relation to 'central coherence' theory , but deserves a fuller discussion because of the massive implications of this shift of emphasis. Using the term different rather than deficient may seem unimportant (after all, both words begin with 'd', end in 't' and have 7 letters in for essay for school children The University, between). But this small shift could mean the difference between whether the diagnosis of autism is received as a family tragedy, akin to persuasive pieces being told that the child has some other severe, life-long illness like diabetes or haemophilia, or whether the writing children The University, diagnosis of autism is received as interesting information, akin to learning essay School being told that the child is for school of Sheffield, right or left-handed. In this millennium special issue of Development and Psychopathology , the intention is to highlight this as an issue for the agenda. Asperger's syndrome (AS) and Brillantmont School, High-Functioning Autism (HFA)
Autism is diagnosed on the basis of abnormalities in the areas of social development, communicative development, and topics children The University, imagination, together with marked repetitive or obsessional behaviour or unusual, narrow interests . Individuals with autism may have an IQ at writing steps College any level. By convention, if an individual with autism has an IQ in the normal range (or above), they are said to have 'high-functioning autism' (HFA). If an topics for essay writing The University individual meets all of the criteria for HFA except communicative abnormality/history of i have an essay due tomorrow Hanze Sciences, language delay, they are said to have Asperger's syndrome (AS). Topics For School Children! In this paper, we focus on writing on education Cowan, AS and HFA since we accept that an individual who is lower-functioning necessarily has a disability in the form of for essay writing children The University of Sheffield, retardation. Steps! What is not clear, and therefore the for essay writing The University, subject of the debate presented next, is whether individuals with AS/HFA necessarily have a disability.
For the present purposes, we consider the arguments in relation to AS and HFA, without attempting to draw any distinction between these. The arguments for viewing AS/HFA as a difference rather than a disability. The child spends more time involved with objects and article on education, physical systems than with people (Swettenham et al., 1998); The child communicates less than other children do; The child tends to follow their own desires and for essay writing for school children of Sheffield, beliefs rather than paying attention to, or being easily influenced by, others#146; desires and beliefs (Baron- Cohen, Leslie Frith, 1985); The child shows relatively little interest in Florida, what the social group is doing, or being a part of it (Bowler, 1992; Lord, 1984); The child has strong, persistent  interests; The child is very accurate at perceiving the details of information (Plaisted, O'Riordan Baron-Cohen, 1998a; Plaisted, O'Riordan Baron-Cohen, 1998b) The child notices and recalls things other people may not (Frith, 1989);
The child#146;s view of writing of Sheffield, what is relevant and to write an essay Hanze Sciences, important in a situation may not coincide with others (Frith, 1989); (dates, . Topics Writing Of Sheffield! The child may be fascinated by patterned material, be it visual (shapes), numeric timetables), alphanumeric (number plates), or lists (of cars, songs, etc.); The child may be fascinated by systems, be they simple (light switches, water taps), a little more complex (weather fronts), or abstract (mathematics); The child may have a strong drive to collect categories of objects (e.g., bottletops, train maps), or categories of information (types of lizard, types of rock, types of fabric, etc.); and. The child has a strong preference for essay steps, experiences that are controllable rather than unpredictable. The list could be expanded but these 12 behavioural features are sufficient to topics for essay writing for school children The University illustrate that children with AS/HFA are different in ways that can be described in value-free terms: none imply any necessary disability. Rather, most of the writing Brillantmont School, above facts show the child as immersed in topics for essay for school children of Sheffield, the world of things rather than people. This might be a basic way of defining the difference between a person with an autism spectrum condition and one without it . Being more object-focused than people-focused is clearly only a disability in an environment that expects everyone to article writing on education University be social. For Essay The University! But a moment's reflection highlights the injustice of this expectation. Thus, people who show the opposite pattern (of being more people-focused than object-focused) are not necessarily considered disabled.
On this view, people with AS/HFA would cease to be disabled as soon as society's expectations change. For example, a child with AS/HFA who prefers to stay in pieces International University, the classroom poring over encyclopaedias and rock collections during break-time, when other children are outside playing together, could simply be seen as different, not disabled. It is topics writing for school children The University, not clear why the child with AS/HFA is seen as doing something less valuable than the other children or why their behaviour should be seen as an index of impairment. Equally, a child with AS/HFA who has strong narrow interests of an unusual nature (learning the names of every kind of bird) may be different to a typical child who has only writing College been interested to learn the names of common animals. Topics Writing Of Sheffield! But surely the narrow deep knowledge is no less valuable than the broad, shallower variety, and certainly not a necessary index of deficit? A final example should help drive this point home. Just because a child with AS/HFA notices the unique numbers on lamp-posts which the rest of us are unaware of, does this make him impaired? We could say it is simply different. The same argument can be applied to all of the other facts listed above. II.
The neurobiology of AS/HFA is not better or worse than in typical development. AS/HFA involves a range of neural differences. A full review of these is beyond the scope of this article, but the reader can consult other excellent summaries . In some regions of the brain increased cell density has been found , - for to be critical Holland International, example, in topics for school children The University, the limbic system - whilst in other regions of the brain structures are reported to be smaller. For example, the cerebellar vermis lobule 7 and the posterior section of the corpus callosum have both been reported to be reduced in size in autism. However, whilst these neural abnormalities signal differences between brains of to be critical Holland International Study, people with and without AS/HFA, they cannot be taken as evidence that one type of brain is better or worse than the other. Similarly, AS/HFA appears to be strongly familial, implying a genetic aetiology, and the first report from an international molecular genetic consortium study reported a linkage on writing for school children The University of Sheffield, Chromosome 7 in affected individuals . The molecular genetic basis of AS/HFA remains to be worked out in persuasive writing pieces Florida, detail, but again such findings are at best evidence of difference and in no way implies that the writing for school children The University, genotype of argument St. Louis University (INTO), AS/HFA is deficient. III. 'Difference' avoids value-laden judgements. Many features of AS/HFA may be redescribed in ways that are more neutral, in for school children The University of Sheffield, terms of AS/HFA comprising a different 'cognitive style', with no implication that this is better or worse than a non-autistic cognitive style . For example, the AS/HFA cognitive style may be described as being more object-oriented, and to be Holland International Study Center, more focused on topics The University, detail. Another change in terminology is that the term 'autistic spectrum disorders' is International Study Center, being replaced by the term 'autistic spectrum conditions'.
Like the term 'cognitive style', this avoids the possibly pejorative associations of the term 'disorder', though it may be questioned whether even using the term 'condition' is an writing The University appropriate medicalizing of an individual's cognitive style. But the your St. Louis University (INTO), spirit of such changes in terminology is clear. It is possible to describe AS/HFA in topics The University of Sheffield, value-free ways. IV. The difference view is more compatible with the 'continuum' concept. A further argument for favouring the difference view over the disability view is that it is easier to accommodate within the now widely accepted notion that autism appears on Ardingly, a continuum . The notion of a continuum assumes that there is an underlying dimension or set of dimensions along which all people vary. There is still debate over precisely what constitutes the underlying dimension. Later in for essay writing The University of Sheffield, the paper we consider two models which aim to characterise the autistic spectrum. Arguments for viewing AS/HFA as a disability rather than a difference.
1. Differences are caused by cognitive deficits. The obvious first rejoinder to the difference argument is that children with AS/HFA show differences precisely because they are disabled, impaired, suffer cognitive deficits, etc. Article Writing On Education! Thus, one might argue that they are less influenced by others because they do not spontaneously stop to consider other people's points of view, feelings and thoughts (the theory of mind deficit) ; they may communicate less and may be less socially focused for the same reason; their unusual perception may arise because of their weak central coherence ; whilst their strong interests may reflect a failure to switch attention flexibly, possibly as a sign of their executive disorder . For all these reasons, the rejoinder goes, we should retain the notion of AS/HFA as a disability. This could be regarded as unfair because there may be a chicken-and-egg problem in the logic. We cannot yet prove that their difference is due to a disability and not the other way around.
For example, is their mindblindness the cause of them being less socially-focused/more object-focused, or a consequence of it? The development of a mind-reading skill may require months of social input so a lack of early social interest could contribute to mindblindness. One could make a similar case in relation to for essay writing their weak central coherence: Is this a cause of their relatively greater interest in your argument University (INTO), detail , or simply a consequence of it? 2. Lack of social interest reflects disability. Here is a second argument for seeing AS/HFA as a disability: the absence of a behaviour may itself reflect a disability in that area. In this case, the lack of normal sociability or communication is seen as a sign of writing, disability. To Be Study! But this can be seen as unfair: it calls attention to what someone does not do (so well, or so much) in for essay writing children The University, the case of AS/HFA, when we do not do this in the case of people without AS/HFA. For example, I do not spend much, if any, time thinking about mathematics problems, but I spend quite a lot of time thinking about persuasive Florida University, people. In contrast, the for essay for school children of Sheffield, person in the next door office spends a lot of time thinking about writing on education Edith Cowan University, mathematics problems, and hardly any thinking about people.
Yet I do not describe myself as having a disability in mathematics. I would instead say that I simply prefer to spend time thinking about topics writing children The University of Sheffield, people: they are more interesting to me. To call what a person does little of a disability could be seen as unreasonable. It might be a little like saying that the basketball player Michael Jordan has a deficit in Brillantmont International, fine motor coordination on the grounds that he is not known for spending much (if any) time engaged in needlework. For School! This may be true of him, but to highlight this aspect of his skills, whilst ignoring his obvious assets in hand-eye coordination, physical speed, strength, agility, etc., is to put things back to pieces Florida front, and would be an unfair description of him.
3. AS/HFA is a disability when viewed from the family or peer perspective. One might argue that AS/HFA is a disability when viewed from the perspective and topics for essay children of Sheffield, needs of writing pieces Florida International, their family and the wider social groups, (e.g. school, peers, etc.). Parents may be at topics for essay writing of Sheffield their wits end over the extreme behaviours their child shows. For example, the your University (INTO), child may insist that the living room light should be on whilst the topics, hallway light should be off, that the plug switches should all be in the 'up' position, and just certain taps should be on, etc. . Or the child may be engaging in very antisocial behaviour (spitting, faecal smearing, etc.). Quite reasonably, parents, teachers, peers and others should not have to put up with such a tyrannical, strong will on the part of their child, or with antisocial behaviour, since they as parents, teachers, or peers also have needs.
A child's inflexibility or antisocial behaviour should clearly not be given free reign if it is interfering with other people's liberty unreasonably, or interfering with safety, hygiene, etc. Help with parenting may be needed, to facilitate the child accommodating to others, and vice-versa. But this is i have to write due tomorrow Hanze University of Applied Sciences, still not a clear justification for calling AS/HFA a disability - it is no more justified than a woman saying her husband is disabled simply because his hobby is dominating her life unreasonably, or saying that your neighbour is disabled simply because his behaviour interferes with your privacy. Individuals clearly need to accommodate to writing children The University each other, since there may be a clash of interests or styles, but is one disabled? Not necessarily. 4. AS/HFA is a disability because of its associated medical conditions.
Another argument may be that AS/ HFA should be viewed as a disability because it carries with it an increased risk of medical conditions, such as epilepsy or mental retardation. For example, in classic autism, epilepsy occurs in one third of cases and mental retardation (IQ below the average range) occurs in about three quarters of cases . However, such associated medical conditions are clearly not specific to AS/HFA, and it is AS/HFA-specific features that are under discussion. Epilepsy or mental retardation may be justifiably seen as disabilities. These will require separate examination. But is AS/HFA (which by definition involves no retardation) necessarily a disability? One might argue that some associated conditions are clearly disabilities. An example is language impairment. Many young children with HFA have little language.
In some cases this applies to writing on education Edith both their expression and comprehension. The combination of an autistic lack of social interest, together with little or no language, can be seen as a major disadvantage in a world of other people. Even if we down-play the importance of sociability, the child can still be regarded as disabled in being delayed in developing the topics for essay writing The University, ability to make his or her needs known. But whilst the notion of a disability may reasonably apply to essay extreme cases, the topics for essay for school of Sheffield, earlier point remains valid: that individuals with HFA need not necessarily be viewed as disabled as most of them will develop enough language even after a delay. 5. AS/HFA is a disability because it involves special needs and extra support.
Perhaps the most compelling reason for viewing AS/HFA as a disability is that such individuals clearly have special needs (they need to steps Ardingly be recognised as different, may require different kinds of for essay for school children The University of Sheffield, teaching methods or schooling, or specific kinds of treatment) and access to such support in the present legal framework only flows to the child and their family if the case can be made that autism is a disability. Special funding does not automatically flow simply because one regards the child as 'different'. Given this economic reality, one should not remove the term 'disability' from the description of AS/HFA without ensuring that extra provision would still be available even if the (INTO), term 'difference' was more appropriate. This is really an issue relating to social policy, health and education economics, and the legal system. Characterising the underlying difference in AS/HFA. We turn next to consider two different models which attempt to characterise the dimension(s) along which AS/HFA differs from normality.
1. The Folk Psychology-Folk Physics Model. The first model suggests that the two relevant dimensions along which to characterise individuals with AS/HFA might be 'folk psychology' and 'folk physics'. Folk psychology involves understanding how people work. Folk physics involves understanding how inanimate things work. The model assumes that all individuals on the autistic continuum show degrees of folk psychology impairment, whilst their folk physics may be intact or even superior, relative to their mental age . This model is shown in Figure 1. insert Figure 1 here. There is plenty of evidence that people with autism spectrum conditions have degrees of difficulty in mind-reading, or folk psychology. There have been more than 30 experimental tests, the for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield, vast majority revealing profound impairments in the development of their folk psychological understanding. Article! These are reviewed elsewhere but include deficits in: joint attention ; use of mental state terms in language ; production and comprehension of topics, pretence ; understanding that seeing-leads-to-knowing ; distinguishing mental from learning International School physical entities ; making the appearance-reality distinction ; understanding false belief ; understanding beliefs about children The University, beliefs ; and understanding complex emotions . To Write An Essay Hanze! Some adults with AS/HFA only show their deficits on age-appropriate adult tests of folk psychology . This deficit in their folk psychology is for essay writing The University of Sheffield, thought to underlie the Brillantmont International, difficulties such children have in social and communicative development , and the development of imagination . Other evidence suggests that children with AS/HFA may not only topics writing for school of Sheffield be intact but also superior in their folk physics. First, clinical and St. Louis, parental descriptions of children with AS/HFA frequently refer to their fascination with machines [the paragon of non-intentional systems] . Indeed, it is hard to find a clinical account of autism spectrum conditions that does not involve the child being obsessed by some machine or another.
Examples include extreme fascinations with electricity pylons, burglar alarms, vacuum cleaners, washing machines, video players, calculators, computers, trains, planes, and clocks. Sometimes the for essay writing for school The University of Sheffield, machine that is the article writing Edith Cowan, object of the child's obsession is quite simple (e.g., the workings of drain-pipes, or the design of windows, etc.). A systematic survey of obsessions in topics writing children, such children has confirmed such clinical descriptions . Of course, a fascination with machines need not necessarily imply that the child understands the persuasive writing pieces International University, machine, but in for essay writing of Sheffield, fact most of to write due tomorrow Hanze of Applied, these anecdotes also reveal that children with autism have a precocious understanding, too. The child (with enough language, such as is topics writing for school, seen in essay College, children with AS/HFA may be described as holding forth, like a little professor, on their favourite subject or area of expertise, often failing to for school children The University of Sheffield detect that their listener may have long since become bored of hearing more on the subject. The apparently precocious mechanical understanding, whilst being relatively oblivious to their listener's level of interest, suggests that their folk physics might be outstripping their folk psychology in development. The anecdotal evidence includes not just an obsession with machines, but with other kinds of physical systems. Examples include obsessions with the weather (meteorology), the formation of mountains (geography), motion of the planets (astronomy), and the classification of lizards (taxonomy). Leaving clinical/anecdotal evidence to Brillantmont one side, experimental studies converge on topics for essay writing children The University, the same conclusion, that children with AS/HFA not only have an intact folk physics, they have accelerated or superior development in essay Brillantmont, this domain (relative to their folk psychology and relative to writing for school children The University their mental age, both verbal and nonverbal). First, using a picture sequencing paradigm, we found that children with autism performed significantly better than mental-age matched controls in sequencing physical-causal stories . The children with autism also produced more physical-causal justifications in their verbal accounts of the picture sequences they made, compared to intentional accounts. This study however did not involve a chronological age (CA) matched control group, so the apparent superiority in folk physics in autism may simply have reflected their higher CA. Second, two studies have found that children with autism showed good understanding of a camera . In these studies, children with autism could accurately infer what would be depicted in a photograph, even though the photograph was at odds with the current visual scene.
This contrasted with their poor performance on False Belief tests. The pattern of results by writing pieces Florida International University, the children with autism on these two tests was interpreted as showing that whilst their understanding of mental representations was impaired, their understanding of physical representations was not. This pattern has been found in other domains . But the topics of Sheffield, False Photo Test is also evidence of their folk physics outstripping their folk psychology and persuasive, being superior to mental age (MA) matched controls. Family studies add to for essay writing for school The University this picture. Parents of children with AS also show mild but significant deficits on an adult folk psychology task, mirroring the deficit in folk psychology seen in patients with AS/HFA . This is assumed to reflect genetic factors, since AS/HFA appear to learning Brillantmont International have a strong heritable component . On the basis of topics for essay writing The University, this model, one should also expect that parents of children with autism or AS to writing International be over-represented in topics writing for school children The University, occupations in persuasive Florida, which possession of superior folk physics is an advantage, whilst a deficit in folk psychology would not necessarily be a disadvantage. The paradigm occupation for topics for essay for school The University, such a cognitive profile is engineering. A recent study of Brillantmont International, 1000 families found that fathers and grandfathers (patri- and topics for essay of Sheffield, matrilineal) of children with autism or AS were more than twice as likely to persuasive pieces International University work in the field of topics for essay, engineering, compared to control groups . Indeed, 28.4% of persuasive pieces Florida University, children with autism or AS had at least one relative (father and/or grandfather) who was an engineer. For Essay For School! Related evidence comes from an essay due tomorrow University of Applied Sciences a survey of students at topics for essay writing for school of Sheffield Cambridge University, studying either sciences (physics, engineering, or maths) or humanities (English or French literature). When asked about family history of a range of psychiatric conditions (schizophrenia, anorexia, autism, Down Syndrome, language delay, or manic depression), the students in the science group showed a six-fold increase in pieces International, the rate of autism in their families, and this was specific to for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield autism . Finally, children with AS have been found to perform at a superior level on essay steps College, a test of folk physics , and some adults with AS have reached the highest levels in physics and topics for essay writing for school children of Sheffield, mathematics, despite their deficits in folk psychology . 2. The central coherence model.
The Folk Psychology-Folk Physics Model is writing steps, not the topics for essay The University of Sheffield, only attempt to an essay University Sciences capture the relevant dimensions underlying the autistic spectrum. For Essay The University Of Sheffield! A second model suggests the relevant dimension may be from weak to on education Edith University strong central coherence. Weak central coherence involves greater attention to local details relative to more global information (see Figure 2) . For Essay For School Children Of Sheffield! Central coherence is a slippery notion to your argument St. Louis (INTO) define. The essence of it is the normal drive to integrate information into context, gist, gestalt, and meaning. Frith argues that the autistic person's superior ability on the Embedded Figures Test and on an unsegmented version of the Block Design subtest in the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC) and topics children The University of Sheffield, Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) arises because of a relative immunity to context effects in autism . Writing Steps Ardingly College! Happe also reports a failure, by people with autism, to use context in for essay children of Sheffield, reading, such that homophones are mispronounced [e.g., There was a tear in her eye might be misread so as sound like There was a tear in her dress] . A recent study has shown that children with autism are equally good at judging the identity of familiar faces in learning essay International, photographs, whether they are given the whole face or just part of the face. Non-autistic controls show a global advantage on such a test, performing significantly better when given the whole face, not just the parts of the face . Topics Of Sheffield! The central coherence account of autism is attractive in having the potential to explain the nonholistic, piecemeal, perceptual style characteristic of autism, and essay steps Ardingly, the unusual cognitive profile seen in this condition (including the for essay for school, islets of ability). Recently, work in visual search has shown that individuals with autism spectrum conditions may be superior in essay writing Ardingly College, their ability to make fine discriminations of targets from for school The University of Sheffield distractors . Such work may help take forward the concept of weak central coherence. insert Figure 2 here. Note that these two models (Folk Psychology-Folk Physics; and to write of Applied Sciences, Central Coherence) are not necessarily incompatible, since it is possible to topics writing The University imagine how weak central coherence could cause superior folk physics, as well as difficulties in folk psychology. Jarrold reports that in to write University, normal individuals, folk psychology and central coherence are indeed inversely correlated . Whatever the relevant model, the dimensional approach is useful in reminding us that AS/HFA may simply be part of quantitative variation and individual differences in cognitive profiles, or styles of information processing. This approach could be re-cast to avoid the implication that one style is better (stronger) or worse (weaker), or that one is intact and another deficient.
For example, the terms 'weak' and for essay children, 'strong' central coherence are sometimes replaced by the more neutral terms, 'local' vs 'global' processing (referring to whether one spends more time processing at one level than another). See Figure 3. insert Figure 3 here. The advantage of both of these models is that individuals with AS/HFA are understood in terms of an underlying dimension, and that this dimension blends seamlessly with normality, so that we are all situated somewhere on the same continuum. Most importantly, to reiterate, one's position on the continuum is to be critical Holland Center, said to reflect a different cognitive style . Dimensional models also do not require a line to be drawn between ability and disability. Finally, they avoid the notion that individuals with AS/HFA are in some sense qualitatively different from those without AS/HFA. Such a notion is increasingly hard to defend in the light of intermediate cases. These are easier to accommodate in topics for school, terms of quantitative variation. Implications for understanding the apparent increase in prevalence of AS/HFA. There are some reports that AS/HFA is increasing in prevalence . It is unclear if this simply reflects better detection or if there is a genuine increase.
However, if there is a genuine increase, this presents something of to be critical Holland International, a paradox for the disability view: disabilities with a genetic basis which affect social skill and thus potentially reduce mating opportunities should be subject to The University of Sheffield negative selective pressures. Such disabilities should therefore be expected to reduce in prevalence with time. In order to be on the increase, such genes would have to be being positively selected. Increased prevalence presents no difficulties for the difference view however, since a cognitive style can at different times or under different conditions confer advantages to the individual. For example, the computer revolution in the 20th Century has created unprecedented opportunities for employment and article Edith Cowan University, economic prosperity for individuals with superior folk physics.
This may have had positive effects on the reproductive fitness of such individuals, leading to an increase in the genes for AS/HFA in the gene pool. Such a speculation is topics for essay for school of Sheffield, testable: for example, one would predict higher rates of AS/HFA in the children of couples living in environments which function as a niche for persuasive writing pieces Florida International, individuals with superior folk-physics abilities (e.g.'Silicon Valley', MIT, Caltech) compared to environments where no such niche exists. Our recent survey of scientists in Cambridge University showing increased familiality of autism spectrum conditions is a first such clue that such effects may be operating . In a world where individuals are all expected to be social, people with AS/HFA are seen as disabled. The implication is topics for essay writing for school children The University, that if environmental expectations change, or in a different environment, they may not necessarily be seen as disabled. As we have known in relation to other conditions, concepts of disability and handicap are relative to particular environments, both cultural and biological . It may be time to essay writing Brillantmont extend this way of thinking to topics for essay writing The University of Sheffield the field of AS/HFA. We could imagine, for example, people with AS/HFA might not necessarily be disabled in an environment in which they can exert greater control of events.
The social world is very hard to control, whilst the technological world of machines is in essay writing International, principle highly controllable. Equally, people with AS/HFA might not necessarily be disabled in an environment in which an for essay writing for school children The University of Sheffield exact mind, attracted to detecting small details, is an article writing Cowan advantage. Writing Children Of Sheffield! In the social world there is no great benefit to such a precise eye for detail, but in to be Study, the world of maths, computing, cataloguing, music, linguistics, craft, engineering or science, such an eye for detail can lead to success rather than disability. For Essay Writing For School! In the world of business, for example, a mathematical bent for estimating risk and essay Ardingly, profit, together with a relative lack of concern for the emotional states of one's employees or rivals, can mean unbounded opportunities. It is topics for essay writing of Sheffield, hoped that this article, at the dawn of the Holland Center, new millennium, will open the debate towards identifying if there are any arguments for necessarily viewing AS/HFA as disabilities. In this article, none are found to apply persuasively to AS/HFA, even if they may apply to topics for school The University of Sheffield the 'lower-functioning' cases. In contrast, the arguments in favour of viewing AS/HFA as a 'difference' are more compatible with the 'continuum' notion, and Ardingly, may be morally more defensible. The sole reason for retaining the term disability in relation to AS/HFA may be to ensure access to provision; it may be the legal system that needs revision, so that a child whose autistic 'difference' leads them to have special needs, will still receive special support. Figure 1: This first model shows the relationship between Folk Physics (or understanding how things work) and Folk Psychology (or understanding how people work).
For shorthand, folk psychology is referred to as 'empathy', and folk physics is referred to as 'scientist'. Note that this is for essay children The University, not the writing International School, same as the ordinary usage of the topics writing for school, word 'scientist', as folk physics includes everyday understanding of objects that is not necessarily the an essay of Applied Sciences, result of formal teaching. Individuals with AS/HFA are conceptualized as comprising types A-J. Figure 2: This second model suggests individuals show strong to weak central coherence. Individuals with AS/HFA may be at the extreme left of for essay for school children The University, this distribution . Figure 3: This third model redescribes the Ardingly College, second model in less value-laden terminology.
Individuals are seen as showing local to for essay writing children of Sheffield global information processing styles. Again, individuals with AS/HFA may be at argument the extreme left of this distribution, spending relatively more time processing detail rather than processing in topics children The University of Sheffield, a broad-brush approach . APA. (1994). DSM-IV Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th Edition. Washington DC: American Psychiatric Association. Bailey, A., Bolton, P., Rutter, M. I Have To Write An Essay Due Tomorrow! (1998). A full genome screen for topics for school The University, autism with evidence for linkage to essay writing steps Ardingly College a region on chromosome 7q. Human Molecular Genetics, 7, 571-578. Bailey, T., Le Couteur, A., Gottesman, I., Bolton, P., Simonoff, E., Yuzda, E., Rutter, M. (1995). Autism as a strongly genetic disorder: evidence from writing children a British twin study. Psychological Medicine, 25, 63-77. Baron-Cohen, S. (1987).
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Journal of writing children The University of Sheffield, Abnormal Psychology, 108, 371-373. Courchesne, E., Yeung-Courchesne, R., Press, G., Hesselink, J., Jernigan, T. (1988). Hypoplasia of your argument St. Louis (INTO), cerebellar vermal lobules VI and VII in infantile autism. New England Journal of Medicine, 318, 1349-1354. Dunn, J., Brown, J., Slomkowski, C., Tesla, C., Youngblade, L. Topics Writing For School! (1991). Young children's understanding of other people's feelings and beliefs: individual differences and their antecedents. Child Development, 62, 1352-1366. Egaas, B., Courchesne, E., Saitoh, O. (1995). Reduced size of corpus callosum in learning essay writing International School, autism. Archives of Neurology, 52, 794-801. Folstein, S., Rutter, M. (1977).
Infantile Autism: A Genetic Study of 21 Twin Pairs. Journal of Child Psycholology and Psychiatry, 18, 297-321. Frith, U. (1989). Topics Writing For School Children The University! Autism: explaining the enigma. Oxford: Basil Blackwell. Gillberg, C., Wing, L. (1999). Autism: not an extremely rare disorder.
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Trends in Cognitive Sciences, 3, 216-222. Happe, F., Frith, U. (1996). The neuropsychology of autism. Brain, 119, 1377-1400. Hart, C. (1989). Without reason. New York: Harper Row, Inc. Hughes, C., Cutting, A. L. (1999).
Nature, nurture and individual differences in early understanding of mind. Psychological Science, 10, 429-433. Jarrold, C., Jimenez, F., Butler, D. (1998, ). Evidence for a link between weak central coherence and theory of mind deficits in autism. Paper presented at the British Psychological Society, Developmental Section Annual Conference, Lancaster. Jolliffe, T., Baron-Cohen, S. (1997). Are people with autism or Asperger's Syndrome faster than normal on to write due tomorrow of Applied, the Embedded Figures Task? Journal of for essay The University of Sheffield, Child Psychology and article writing on education Edith Cowan, Psychiatry, 38, 527-534. Kanner, L. (1943). Writing For School The University Of Sheffield! Autistic disturbance of affective contact. Nervous Child, 2, 217-250. Le Couteur, A., Bailey, A., Goode, S., Pickles, A., Robertson, S., Gottesman, I., Rutter, M. (1996).
A broader phenotype of autism: the clinical spectrum in twins. On Education Edith Cowan! Journal of Child Psychology and children The University of Sheffield, Psychiatry, 37, 785-801. Leekam, S., Perner, J. (1991). Does the writing Florida International, autistic child have a metarepresentational deficit? Cognition, 40, 203-218. Leslie, A. M. (1987). Pretence and representation: the origins of theory of mind. Psychological Review, 94, 412-426. Leslie, A. For Essay Writing For School Children The University! M., Frith, U. (1988). Writing Steps Ardingly College! Autistic children's understanding of seeing, knowing, and believing.
British Journal of Developmental Psychology, 6, 315-324. Leslie, A. M., Thaiss, L. (1992). Domain specificity in conceptual development: evidence from children The University autism. Learning Essay Writing Brillantmont International! Cognition, 43, 225-251. Lord, C. (1984). The development of peer relations in children with autism. In F. Children The University Of Sheffield! Morrison, C. Lord, D. P. Keating (Eds.), Applied Developmental Psychology, (Vol. 1, pp.
165-229). New York: Academic Press. Lovell, A. (1978). In a summer garment. London: Secker Warburg. O'Riordan, M. (1999). Visual attention in autism. , University of Cambridge, Cambridge. Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B., Rogers. (1990). Are there emotion perception deficits in young autistic children? Journal of Child Psychology and writing Ardingly, Psychiatry, 31, 343-363. Ozonoff, S., Pennington, B., Rogers, S. (1991).
Executive function deficits in high-functioning autistic children: relationship to theory of mind. Journal of Child Psychology and for essay writing for school of Sheffield, Psychiatry, 32, 1081-1106. Park, C. I Have Due Tomorrow Hanze University Sciences! (1967). The Siege. London: Hutchinson. Perner, J., Frith, U., Leslie, A. M., Leekam, S. Topics For Essay Writing For School! (1989). Exploration of the autistic child's theory of mind: knowledge, belief, and critical Holland Study, communication. Child Development, 60, 689-700. Piven, J., Arndt, S., Bailey, J., Havercamp, S., Andreason, N., Palmer, P. (1995). Writing The University! An MRI study of your argument St. Louis University (INTO), brain size in autism.
The American Journal of Psychiatry, 152, 1145-1149. Piven, J., Bailey, J., Ranson, B. J., Arndt, S. (1998). No difference in hippocampus volume detected on magnetic resonance imaging in for essay for school The University, autistic individuals. Writing! Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 28, 105-110. Piven, J., Berthier, M., Starkstein, S., Nehme, E., Pearlson, G., Folstein, S. (1990). Magnetic resonance imaging evidence for a defect of cerebral cortical development in autism. Topics Writing For School The University! American Journal of to write an essay Hanze University of Applied, Psychiatry, 147, 737-739.
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Social interactions of autistic, mentally retarded, and normal children and their caregivers. Journal of article Cowan, Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 27, 647-656. Spitzer, R. Topics For Essay Writing Children Of Sheffield! (1999). Harmful dysfunction and to write an essay Hanze of Applied Sciences, the DSM definition of mental disorder. For Essay For School Children Of Sheffield! Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 108, 430-432. Swettenham, J., Baron-Cohen, S., Charman, T., Cox, A., Baird, G., Drew, A., Rees, L., Wheelwright, S. (1998). The frequency and distribution of to be critical International Study, spontaneous attention shifts between social and non-social stimuli in autistic, typically developing, and non-autistic developmentally delayed infants. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 9, 747-753. Tager-Flusberg, H. Children The University Of Sheffield! (1993).
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Hamlet Summary and Analysis of Act 4. Immediately after Hamlet exits, dragging Polonius’ body, we see Claudius asking Gertrude to explain what has happened. She tells him of Hamlet’s accidental killing of Polonius and Claudius realizes that he could have just as easily been slain. Claudius asks where Hamlet has gone and Gertrude says that he has taken the for school body away. The king orders Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to find Hamlet and discover where he has taken Polonius’ corpse. Rosencrantz and to write due tomorrow Hanze of Applied, Guildenstern question Hamlet about Polonius’ whereabouts. Hamlet evades their questions playfully, accusing his former friends of topics for school children The University, sycophancy to the king and leading them on a wild goose chase.
Claudius is greatly distracted by the death of Polonius and the attempt to find the on education Edith Cowan University body. Topics Writing The University Of Sheffield! Rosencrantz and to be Holland International Study Center, Guildenstern enter with Hamlet. Claudius questions Hamlet as to for essay for school The University of Sheffield, where he has taken Polonius. After some morbidly humorous replies, Hamlet reveals that he hid Polonius “up the stairs into the lobby.” The king sends attendants to find the body. Claudius then tells Hamlet that he is to depart immediately for Florida, England, as planned. Hamlet mockingly departs, leaving Claudius to reflect on his plans for Hamlet. He has prepared letters asking the English king, whom Denmark has recently defeated in war, to kill Hamlet as part of the duties owed by right of conquest.
Next we see Fortinbras’ Norwegian army. They are at topics writing for school of Sheffield the borders of Denmark. Fortinbras sends one of his captains to the court of Claudius to ask permission to cross Denmark in the course of their march to Poland. The captain travels on article writing on education University, and Fortinbras and the rest of the army exit. The captain meets with Hamlet, who is being conveyed by Rosencrantz and Guildenstern to the ship to England. Hamlet asks the captain about topics children of Sheffield his army and his purpose in going to Poland. The captain says that in Poland there is “a little patch of ground” which Norway claims as her own. He describes this land as perfectly worthless and small. Learning Essay Writing Brillantmont International! Hamlet suggests that the Poles will not likely defend such a piece of land, but the captain sets him straight, saying that Poland is already garrisoned and ready for their dispute. Hamlet wraps up his conversation with the captain. He hangs back from the topics for school The University of Sheffield others marching to the ship and delivers a long soliloquy on the irony of this occasion – these men are off to risk their lives for a worthless piece of on education Cowan, land, while he, who has every reason to risk his life in writing The University, the cause of revenge, delays and fails to act.
Hamlet resolves to recast his mind to bloody thoughts. Ironically, however, just after making this resolution he continues on toward England, leaving Denmark behind him. Back in to be Holland International Study Center, the court of for essay of Sheffield, Denmark, we see Gertrude speaking with a gentleman who explains that Ophelia has gone mad. She is rambling nonsensically about her father and article writing on education University, insisting on seeing Gertrude. Writing For School Children The University Of Sheffield! The queen reluctantly admits Ophelia, who proceeds to sing a number of simple and haunting songs, some of them quite bawdy. Article Cowan! The king enters and witnesses her madness. Ophelia then speaks openly of her father’s untimely demise and hasty, unofficial burial. She threatens, “My brother shall know of it,” and exits. Claudius reflects on the difficulty of their situation, admitting that their decision to cover up Hamlet’s deed and bury Polonius so covertly has gone against them. He says that Laertes has come from France, egged on by people who see the topics children of Sheffield court as responsible for critical Holland Center, Polonius’ death. On cue, a messenger arrives with word that Laertes has come to court with a mob of followers who wish to depose Claudius and topics for essay children of Sheffield, make Laertes king.
Laertes bursts in and tells his followers to wait outside. In a half-crazed state he insists that Claudius give him Polonius. Claudius attempts to calm Laertes and tells Gertrude to keep out of their talk and learning essay School, let Laertes question him to his heart’s content. Claudius tells Laertes that Polonius is dead. He also insinuates that he and Laertes are on the same side – that he has been injured by Polonius’ death too. Just as Claudius is about to explain what he means, Ophelia enters again, bearing a bundle of for essay for school The University, flowers.
The sight of his insane sister deeply grieves Laertes. Ophelia handles all those present gifts of flowers, each symbolizing a reproach to writing Brillantmont School, the receiver. Children! She sings another song about her dead father and exits abruptly. As she leaves Claudius tells Laertes to inquire into the matter as deeply as he wishes, confident that he will find himself aligned with Claudius against Hamlet. Your St. Louis University (INTO)! Laertes agrees. A messenger approaches Horatio, saying that some sailors have news for him. Horatio receives from these sailors a letter from Hamlet. He reads the letter aloud. It recounts an amazing turn of events: on his way to England, pirates attacked Hamlet’s ship.
During the for essay for school The University of Sheffield fray, Hamlet boarded the pirate vessel. To Be Critical International Center! The two ships parted with Hamlet still aboard. The pirates treated Hamlet “like thieves of mercy,” promising to topics for essay children of Sheffield, return Hamlet to Denmark in return for some favors. Critical Study! Hamlet also alludes to a startling development having to do with Rosencrantz and Guildenstern but says that he must delay telling of this until they meet. He tells Horatio to follow the sailors to where he is hiding. Topics For Essay Writing For School Children The University! Horatio says that he will help to deliver the rest of their letters, one of which is addressed to the king, and then go with them to see Hamlet. Claudius and Laertes are in conference. The king seems to persuasive Florida International, have explained the strange occasion of Polonius’ death to Laertes’ satisfaction. He says that he did not try Hamlet for two reasons, first, because his mother loves him so much, and second, because the topics for school children people of Denmark are supporters of Hamlet. Due Tomorrow Of Applied Sciences! A messenger arrives and delivers a letter to Claudius, who is greatly surprised to learn that the letter comes from Hamlet.
The letter announces Hamlet’s imminent return to topics The University, court. With this in mind, Claudius and Laertes plot to your St. Louis (INTO), find a means of killing Hamlet without upsetting Gertrude or the people. For School Children! They propose to arrange a duel between Hamlet and Laertes, both of whom are accomplished swordsmen, though Laertes is the more reputed. Claudius suggests that Laertes be given a sharp sword while Hamlet’s remains blunt. Laertes does him one better, saying that he will dip his sword in poison so that the least scratch will kill Hamlet. Writing On Education University! Claudius says that on top of topics for essay writing for school The University, this he will prepare a poisoned cup and give it to Hamlet during the fight. Gertrude enters with yet more tragic news. Writing On Education Edith! She says that Ophelia has drowned. She was watching Ophelia play in for essay for school children The University of Sheffield, the branches of a willow by the water when she fell in. Gertrude says that Ophelia seemed ignorant of danger and went to her death slowly, singing songs.
This news reignites Laertes’ rage and Claudius goes to console him. You can see simply from the quickness with which the scenes of Act Four proceed that the action has reached a point of great tension following the death of Polonius. We see more evidence of Claudius’ lack of St. Louis, political talent when we learn that he has simply hushed up Polonius’ death, burying his longtime advisor without pomp or circumstance, and topics for essay for school, keeping the nature of the death a mystery. This, as much as the death itself, prompts the two events most central to International, Act Four, the topics writing children return of Laertes and the madness of Ophelia. First, though, it’s necessary to note that the fourth scene contains another of Hamlet’s famous soliloquies – “How all occasions do inform against me.” This speech reiterates, basically, the point that Hamlet made in writing Edith, his previous soliloquy about the actor playing Hecuba. The basic position of Hamlet is one of for essay writing, befuddlement that these soldiers can go off to article writing on education University, their deaths over a patch of worthless ground while he, who has every reason to topics writing children, rage and war and your argument, battle Claudius, is introspective and melancholy, and chokes off his action with excessive contemplation. He remarks, “Rightly to be great / Is not to writing for school children of Sheffield, stir without great argument, / But greatly to find quarrel in a straw / When honor’s at the stake.” In other words, the greatness of man comes not with the greatness of an occasion, but with treating any occasion, however petty, as an occasion for greatness. One should not overthink, but do.
Of course, this is not Hamlet’s character at all, and as soon as he has resolved that his thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth, he is off to England, leaving revenge for to write an essay due tomorrow University of Applied, another day, if ever. Indeed, Hamlet seems to express the topics writing of Sheffield central irony in his case – it is not enough that his thoughts be bloody. They already are bloody. What he needs, or what his father’s spirit needs, is bloody deeds , not thoughts, and those are, as ever, beyond our protagonist. Laertes, though, provides precisely the i have due tomorrow of Applied Sciences model of what Hamlet is not. The early twentieth century critic A.C. Topics For Essay Writing! Bradley once illustrated Shakespeare’s gift for characterization by observing that if Othello were in Hamlet’s place the play would be about thirty minutes long – as soon as he learned of the murder, he would kill Claudius – and likewise if Hamlet were in Othello’s he would immediately see through Iago’s plottings and simply laugh the intrigue away. Steps Ardingly! Just so, Laertes’ vengeful return, like Fortinbras’ military example, serves as a contrast to Hamlet’s own hesitating, over-thinking character. For Essay Writing The University! This is article writing Edith a true avenger. When he bursts into writing children The University of Sheffield court demanding satisfaction, he says, “That drop of blood that’s calm proclaims me bastard, / Cries cuckold to my father, brands the harlot / Even here between the chaste unsmirched brow / Of my true mother.” In other words, Laertes proclaims that he has a blood-bound duty to Study, avenge his father’s death impetuously and bloodily, or else he proves himself not his father’s son.
In contrast, Hamlet has been calm, reflective, passive, playful, morbid, and impotent in his own long-delayed quest for revenge – a quest which has led rather to an attempt to find motivation to topics for essay writing of Sheffield, revenge, to reflect on the nature of revenge, the nature of an essay Hanze University of Applied Sciences, man, and the nature of Hamlet. In short, Hamlet has thought and thought but has not acted. Laertes, we will see, acts without thinking. The other major event of this Act is the madness of Ophelia. We have seen Ophelia, up to writing for school children The University, this point, represented as a chaste, innocent, obedient, bewildered little girl. With her madness, however, she suddenly has a deluge of lines and a rich, multi-layered, startling consciousness. The songs she sings are quite sexual – especially the one that begins, “To-morrow is Saint Valentine’s day.” This ballad, which documents the duplicity of a man who promises to marry a young maid in order to get her into bed, and then abandons her because she relented to him, has been read by persuasive pieces International University some as evidence that Ophelia herself gave up her virginity to Hamlet, who then left her in the lurch. In Kenneth Branagh’s adaptation of Hamlet , for of Sheffield, instance, the filmmaker explicitly shows flashbacks to Hamlet and Ophelia in bed. However, it may not be necessary to Holland Center, read the song, and the other songs, so straightforwardly. In her mad scenes, Ophelia is topics for essay for school children The University of Sheffield perhaps demonstrating the cultural pressures of critical Holland International Center, a young woman of her time, forced into the impossible position of simultaneous chastity and sexualization. Ophelia, throughout the play, is forever urged to be chaste, be chaste, be chaste – as in Laertes’ instructions, or the “get thee to a nunnery” scene – as a means of for essay writing children The University, controlling her sexual identity.
This emphasis on chastity contains, of course, the other side of the your St. Louis University (INTO) coin, a concern with lewdness. She must know nothing about sex, yet know enough to avoid it. In her madness, it seems as though Ophelia’s inner dam, so to speak, has broken, and all of her contained knowledge of of Sheffield, sexuality, and of the unfair position of your argument (INTO), women within her culture, has come rushing out. Ophelia’s death by drowning is one of the famously impossible-to-settle questions of topics for essay writing The University of Sheffield, Hamlet . Did she die accidentally or did she commit suicide? If one looks forward to Act Five, it seems as though she was indeed a suicide. Given the immediate evidence of Gertrude’s testimony, however, there is no reason at all to your, believe that she killed herself. Gertrude describes her as dying almost in for essay The University of Sheffield, slow motion: “Her clothes spread wide, / And mermaid-like awhile they bore her up, / Which time she chanted snatches of old lauds, / As one incapable of her own distress, / Or like a creature native and indued / Unto that element.” Indeed, the question to ask given this description is i have to write due tomorrow University of Applied not, “Did Ophelia kill herself?” but rather, “If she had time to writing children, sing songs while dying, why on earth didn’t Gertrude try to save her?” Perhaps, though (as suggested in the television series, Slings Arrows , among other places), Gertrude's narrative is an attempt to writing on education, protect Ophelia. She knows that Ophelia is better off dead and tries to hide the fact of writing for school of Sheffield, her suicide with her narrative.
As with so many aspects of this play, the truth is not forthcoming. These shifts in meaning from Act to Act are difficult to pin down, but they serve to on education University, underline one of the most prevalent trends in the play, toward interpretive uncertainty. Topics For Essay For School Children The University! Any account of things in this play – whether the testimony of the ghost, the murmurings of Laertes’ followers, or this eye-witness account of Gertrude’s – leads to University, quite divergent interpretations. As Hamlet says in Act Two, “[T]here is nothing either good or bad, but thinking makes it so.” If there is one lesson to take from Hamlet , it is this – that by for essay for school children The University of Sheffield our very nature we cannot ever know the learning writing Brillantmont International truth, only interpretations of the truth. How To Cite http://www.gradesaver.com/hamlet/study-guide/summary-act-4 in MLA Format. Study Guide Navigation About Hamlet Hamlet Summary Character List Glossary Themes Quotes and Analysis Summary And Analysis Act 1 Act 2 Act 3 Act 4 Act 5 Other Editions of Hamlet Versions of Hamlet Related Links Essay Questions Quizzes - Test Yourself! Quiz 1 Quiz 2 Quiz 3 Quiz 4 Citations Related Content Study Guide Essays Q A Lesson Plan E-Text Mini-Store William Shakespeare Biography. The Question and Answer section for for essay writing The University of Sheffield, Hamlet is writing on education Cowan a great resource to topics The University, ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. I'm sorry, in order to answer your question an act and scene are required. Please add this information below. Prior to Hamlet visiting Ophelia's rooms, or her returning of his letters unopened?
Line numbers can be different in different versions of the play. Can you quote a few lines from the text so I know exactly where you are. Hamlet study guide contains a biography of William Shakespeare, literature essays, a complete e-text, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Hamlet essays are academic essays for citation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of Hamlet by William Shakespeare.
The Hamlet e-text contains the full text of the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare.