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aztec vs. inca essay Aztec vs. Writing A Perfect Essay College! Inca by Amrita K., Mike C., Alex M. and Uggi L. 6 th Period. Writing CATS Canterbury! Difference : Incans had a totalitarian complex government whether as Aztecs had a decentralized government that focused on expansion. --Aztec had Tenochititlan, Texcoco, and Tlecopan that formed the Triple Alliance. --Aztec had a 'loose coalition of city-states under Tenochititlan.' --Aztecs never consolidated complete leadership/administration over writing College, their empire. --Main goal of expansion was to get tribute from conquered people. Debate Essay University Of Wollongong In Dubai! -- Conquered were forced to give soldiers which led to a perfect essay Niagara College, more expansion. --In the Incan empire, government was very strict. Write An Autobiography High School! --TIGHT control like random house searches. --Incas split their empire up into 4 parts that were all known as suyus. Each quarter was governed by a blood relative. --There is was about a perfect Niagara 1 official for every 10 peasants. --had harsh punishment for lazyness. Of Wollongong In Dubai! --examples of Incan punishment: they were thrown off a cliff, hands cut off or eyes cut out, or hung up to starve to death.
Prisons were of no use because punishment usually consisted of death. Essay Niagara College! Significance : Since Aztecs never really had a lot of control over the conquered people, many of them were eager to fight for essay Marian Catholic High School Cortez against a perfect essay College the Aztecs which helped lead to their decline. Incas on the other hand had a very complex empire with a lot of control over their people. So, since they had such an established rule, it made it MUCH harder and took a lot longer for Pizzaro to defeat them. Similarity : Both Incan and Aztec religions were polytheistic and had many rituals performed by being a critical thinker Holderness School preists. --Most important to the Aztecs was the sun god, Huitzilopochtli.(meaning=blue hummingbird on the left) --Another very important god was Quetzalcoatl. --Aztecs had HUMAN SACRIFICES!!
--Priests also had bloodlettings. --Calmecacs were religious schools that provided instruction on priesthood. Writing Essay College! --They had a calendar of religious events. --had MANY nature-related gods like Tlaloc(god of rain) --priests had a 'new fire ceremony' -- Very important to write, the Inca was the sun and war god, Inti. --Their most important god was Viracocha. --Priests had live ANIMAL SACRIFICES. Only in disaster did they sacrifice a child or woman. --priests held funeral ceremonies. Writing Niagara! --religion was very formal and they had many priests. --had tombs called chullpas or huacas. --had MANY nature-related gods that were very important to getting a good harvest. -- Priests prophecized future, healed people(used successful surgery) Significance : Both used religion to write School, unite civilizations, and writing a perfect Niagara, gain control over people since both kings were considered divine. Difference : Aztecs had more craftspeople (artisans, merchants) and therefore more diverse social classes, leading to specialization. Aztecs had individual advancement based on military ability. Incas had little social mobility. Similarity : Families in both empires lived in groups(calpullis or ayllus). --Calpulli were nuclear families organized into working groups.
They claimed descent from a common ancestor. Each calpulli had a temple, armory to hold weapons, and land was divided among the heads of how to write an essay my life IUBH School of Business & Management, families according to their needs. Each calpulli regulated affairs, elected a council and officers, lead in war, dispence justice, maintained records. --Women didn't have much of a public role, but were honored by having sons that fought. Writing A Perfect Essay! --under the ruler there was a noble class with priests, administration, etc. After that there was a class of Marian, commoners like artisans and merchants. A Perfect College! Merchants were in a group known as pochteca. They had guilds and many rights. Finally there were the workers that farmed with their calpullis. --Ayllu were family groups which worked on government land. If an Incan man wasnt married by age 20, then the writing websites free, head of ayllu chose a mate for him.
The size varied. People lived and died inside the ayllu. --Women didn't have much of a public role, but were honored by writing essay Niagara College having sons that fought. --Besides a small minority of nobility, most Incas were farmers that worked the land all day. --Specially gifted boys were taught how to keep records or do a craft. Specially gifted girls became 'chosen women' who were put in the household of the importance essay School, emperor or nobles. Other than that, there was not much movement inside the social structure. Reason for difference : because the Incans had a totalitarian government, in order to keep control over people, the leader had to limit their mobility. A Perfect Niagara College! Also, since the government required 2/3 of the crop, most people were stuck being farmers and had little time/resources to an autobiography Marian Catholic High School, learn and use a new skill/craft. Significance of difference : Since Aztecs had more artisans, craftsmen, and merchants, it may have led to more specialization and more trade. Writing College! Difference : Currency for Aztecs was cacao beans, cloth, or salt. Currency for Incas was mined gold.
When Incans farm, 2/3 is given to tax and redistributed. Aztecs bartered for other goods. Similarity: Agriculture was the basis of both economies. Both Incas and Aztecs had tributes, but Aztecs had it more. Of Writing Grier! --Cacao beans were used as currency to buy tools, clothes, jewelry at market places. This currency was also used in longer distances of trade, in which merchants traveled to Niagara, modern Belize, Honduras, Guatemala, mainly to buy rare items like rubber, cotton, exotic tropical feathers, jaguar skins and sell their jewelry. --Also, sometimes cotton cloth and write an essay about IUBH School of Business, salt were used as mediums of exchange.
Otherwise, people bartered. (Barter economy). --During long distance trade to the south, Aztecs transported goods by a perfect essay canoe or by slaves (carrying things on their backs). Sometimes, warriors traveled with the caravans to writing websites free Glenlyon Norfolk, protect the merchants, and merchants helped spy on enemies. --The merchant class was called pochteca. It was a hereditary class. They lived in a perfect, separate places in the city and in being thinker, guilds. College! They were below nobles, priests, and warriors. --Many tributary towns provided goods (feathers, beads, cloth, firewood, food), and was usually paid 2-4 times a year. Essay Of Wollongong! --Trade increased during the writing a perfect, Aztec empire, because of essay writing websites School, better roads and communications. --every ayllu had its own farm from which everyone in writing a perfect essay Niagara, the ayllu ate from. An Autobiography Essay Marian Catholic School! So, not much trade was necessary or existed. --used terraces so that they could grow crop in mountains. --llamas and alpacas were used to carry heavy loads. They also gave the incas wool( to writing Niagara College, keep warm) and debate essay of Wollongong, dung(an energy provider) --had a lot of different kinds of food like potato, corn, cassava, peppers, squash, beans, quinoa, peanuts. --had to built irrigation system due to drought/heavy rain. --mountains hindered agricultural development. --mined a LOT of gold and silver, which helped lead to decline since that's what the explorers were after. --trade was hard for Incas due to mountainous region. Reason for difference : Since the Incas didn't have as many merchants or artisans, there economy was more heavily focused on agriculture.
Since their food wasn't sold, but was rather 'redistributed' by the government, this led to much less trade than in the Aztec civilization, since the Aztecs actually traded and bartered for other things. Significance of similarity: Since both economies were based on a perfect College agriculture, agriculture became a very important part of their lives. So important in fact, that they made their religion based off of write an autobiography essay Catholic, agriculture and had many nature-related gods that effected their harvest.
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metal powder thesis 1 ICTM-Department of Electrochemistry, University of Belgrade. Njegoseva 12, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. 2 Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade. Karnegijeva 4, 11000 Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. A powder is defined as a finely divided solid, smaller than 1000 µm in its maximum dimension. A particle is defined as the smallest unit of a powder. The particles of many metal powders are 25 to 200 µm in size. In most cases, the a perfect powders will be metallic, although in many instances they are combined with other phases such as ceramics or polymers. Powders exhibit behavior that is intermediate between that of a solid and a liquid.
Powders will flow under gravity to fill containers or die cavities, so in this sense they behave like liquids. They are compressible like a gas. But the compression of a metal powder is essentially irreversible, like the debate of Wollongong plastic deformation of writing essay Niagara a metal. Thus, a metal powder is easily shaped, with the School desirable behavior of a solid after processing. Powder metallurgy is the essay study of the processing of metal powders, including the fabrication, characterization, and conversion of write essay Marian High School metal powders into useful engineering components. The three main steps in the scheme of powder metallurgy are illustrated in Figure 1. First is the general area labeled “powder technology,” which is concerned with the nature of powders. Emphasis is given to a perfect essay College, the fabrication, classification (according to particle size), safety, packing, and handling of powders.
Secondary concerns are with the sampling, packaging, and transportation. Examination of a powder for size and shape are common and important activities in the field of powder technology. Traditional powder consolidation activities include compaction and sintering (a thermal process that increases the strength of a powder mass by bonding adjacent particles via diffusion or related atomic level events). The concerns at this stage are with the formation and densification of the powders. Finally, the conceptual flow turns to an emphasis on the final properties, with concomitant attention to product microstructure. How To Marian Catholic High. The various scientific and technological aspects of powder metallurgy were recently given by a perfect essay Niagara, R.M. German (1994). The applications of metal powders are quite extensive.
In addition to their use in powder metallurgy (resulting in products such as: dental restorations, oil-less bearings, automotive transmission gears, armor piercing projectiles, electrical contacts, nuclear power fuel elements, orthopedic implants, business machine parts, high-temperature filters, aircraft brake pads, etc.), they are used in such products as paint pigments, explosives, rocket fuels, printing inks, catalysts, and many others. Thanks to a rapid increase in the significance of powder metallurgy, metal powders are being produced in large quantities nowadays. The total world production of about of Business iron and copper powder for the years of 1998-2004 is writing Niagara illustrated in Figure 2a (ferrous being approximately 93% of the essay School total), and the European powder metal shipments for powder metallurgy applications is shown in Figure 2b. There are many industrial and consumer materials that are available as powders. They include minerals, cereals (grains and flour), coffee, and metal powders. On a tonnage basis, metal powders are a relatively small activity when compared to common powders such as sand and cereal.
The worldwide consumption of metal powders amounts to approximately one million metric tons/year. The most commonly used metal powders are iron and writing essay Niagara College, steel, followed by aluminum, copper, nickel, tungsten, etc. Depending on the final product, initial powders have to essay in Dubai, satisfy different requirements. These include physical (size and Niagara College, particle-size distribution, state of the surface), chemical (basic metal and admixture content, chemically bound, adsorbed or dissolved gas contaminants), and what writing CATS College Canterbury, technological properties (apparent density, flowability, stability, compressibility, corrosion resistance, etc.). Writing A Perfect Essay. At the debate same time, the physical, chemical, and technological properties of metal powders strongly depend on the method of powder fabrication. For example, different powders, which have the same chemical composition but different physical characteristics or other technological properties, will require different production conditions. On the other hand, the favored production method is determined also by economical aspects, that is, by the price of the essay powder, the what CATS Canterbury price of the treatment alteration, the quantity of ingredients, and the possibility of obtaining the powder with all necessary physical, electrical, and magnetic characteristics. Considering all these requirements, it is essay College necessary to a have large number of different methods for the production of metal powders, including powders of alloys and compounds. Importance Grier. Nowadays many methods have found broad application in industry (mechanical, chemical, electrolytic fabrication techniques, etc.), and some are found in the laboratory and the pilot-plant.
From scientific and a perfect essay Niagara, commercial aspects, there is an enormous interest in amorphous and nanocrystalline of powders. They are usually smaller than micrometer in size, and are used for production of sintering materials, and for other purposes such as magnetic memories or catalysts. Among the various processes many are chemical methods, such as: gas atomization, plasma spraying, centrifugal atomization, and vapor phase condensation. In contrast with mechanical fabrication techniques these processes enable not only the production of metal powders with controlled particle grain size, but with tailored properties of the powder that are of vital importance for its final application. Almost any material can be made into powder, but the method selected for fabrication of the powder depends on specific material properties. The four main categories of fabrication are based on (1) mechanical comminution, (2) chemical reactions, (3) liquid metal atomization, and (4) electrolytic deposition. In addition to these major techniques, several specialty techniques are used for special materials. There are four fundamental mechanical comminution processes: impaction, attritioning, shearing, and debate essay University in Dubai, compression. Impaction involves the rapid, instantaneous delivery of Niagara College a blow to a material, causing cracks and resulting in size reduction. Essay Norfolk. Attritioning is the reduction in particle size by a rubbing motion.
Shearing forms a cleavage type fracture by cutting. Powders formed by writing essay Niagara, shearing are coarse and not often found in powder metallurgy unless the material is extremely hard. Finally, compressive forces can break a material into a coarse powder if it is CATS College Canterbury sufficiently brittle. Impaction, attritioning, shearing, and compression are often combined to form a metal powder. There are several variants of the chemical fabrication techniques: powders are formed by decomposition of a solid by gas, by thermal decomposition, by precipitation from a liquid, by precipitation from a gas, and by solid-solid reactive synthesis. Atomization involves the formation of powder from molten metal using a spray of droplets. It is attractive because of its applicability to several alloys and because of the writing a perfect essay Niagara ease of process control. There are several atomization processes: (i) gas atomization, (ii) water atomization, (iii) centrifugal atomization, and (iv) plasma atomization. In addition to what is narrative CATS College Canterbury, the major atomization methods, several others can deliver energy to a melt.
Some examples are vibrating wires, high-speed rollers, spinning crucibles, and melt explosion atomizers. All metals that can be electrodeposited exhibit a tendency to appear in form of powders at current densities larger than a certain critical value. A powder formed by the electrolytic technique is often dendritic or spongy in shape although considerable control of particle size and shape is possible. The specific properties of the powder depend on the electrolytic bath conditions during deposition and on the subsequent processing steps. Moreover, it should be noted that there is a possibility of electrodeposition of metal powders with controlled grain size, morphology, and crystal structure of the particles by using electrodeposition at periodically changing rate. The electrolytic powder production method usually yields products of high purity, which can be well pressed and essay Niagara College, sintered. Besides, in recent years it has been shown that by different electrolysis regimes it is possible not only to obtain powders with a wide range of properties, but to predict the decisive characteristics of powders that are of vital importance for debate essay University of Wollongong, powder quality and for the final application. The processes of metal deposition can be categorized into three main groups each of which has different requirements with respect to the physical state of the cathodic product.
In electroplating the crystal layer is writing required to be fine grained, smooth, strongly adhesive, and glassy, that is, to be easily polished. Importance. It is obtained mainly from solutions of complex salts. In electrorefining and electrowinning relatively coarse grained, rough, but adhesive deposits are required. They have to be of high purity and firm enough to endure handling before melting and casting into shapes suitable for a perfect, further processing. They are obtained from solutions of simple salts.
In metal powder production by electrodeposition, a controlled product particle size is necessary and it is desirable that the product should not adhere, or adhere only weakly, to the cathode. Generally, powder production requires other conditions than those in electrowinning and electrorefining. Powders are obtained from qualitatively the same, but less concentrated, solutions as used in electrowinning and are produced at higher current densities. The very earliest uses of metal powders have been traced to several parts of the world. For example, gold powder was fired onto jewelry by the Incas, and the Egyptian uses of iron powder date back to 3000 BC. During the 1800's, the use of powder metallurgy techniques began in earnest. Black silver powder was obtained using electrolysis as early as 1803 and was repeated few years later. Smee recognized, as early 1842, the debate main features of the dependence of a perfect essay crystallite size on current density and concentration and of writing essay, he described the Niagara conditions under which black metals are formed, whose dark color he correctly explained as being caused by importance, the very small size of the deposited particles. The conditions of essay formation and the properties of electrolytic black silver powder were studied in detail already in University in Dubai, the nineteenth century, and the growth of the highly dispersed deposits of silver and copper were followed under the microscope. In an extended study of the electrodeposition of copper, the current densities above which copper is a perfect College deposited in powder form were determined in essay High School, 1886. Besides copper and silver, the nature and the causes of formation of zinc sponge have drawn the attention of various early investigators.
One process by which iron powder (mainly for writing essay Niagara, magnets) was manufactured around 1920 was described in details. Further older work on the formation of powders, flakes, etc., of various metals (lead-sponge, tungsten, platinum, etc.) is reported in a period up to 1925. Before 1910, many papers dealt in detail with the formation of electrolytic metal powders and sponges; however, this problem was rarely considered for its own sake between 1910 and 1935. After 1935, interest in the subject was strongly revived, owing to the rapid development of powder metallurgy. The theory of powder deposition started to develop much later, in the 1950's. Electrodeposition of how to write an autobiography Marian High metal powders evolved from an art to a science by writing essay College, the chapter of Ibl (1962) and especially by the book of Calusaru (1979).
Calusaru reviewed all theoretical and practical knowledge up to 1979, and provided the basis for being a critical Holderness, the scientific approach to the field. The essence of it is the writing Niagara College conclusion that for electrochemical production of metal powders the corresponding electrochemical processes must be under diffusion control. The properties of metal powders depend on the properties of the powder particles, which, in turn, depend on the conditions of writing websites free School electrodeposition. A methodology for modeling of Niagara powder particles, and hence properties of the powder, for electrodeposition at a periodically changing rate was introduced by Popov and Pavlovic (1993). It seems that by using this procedure, powders with predetermined properties can be electrodeposited. The development of this idea will probably be the future of electrochemical powder formation. Electrolytic fabrication techniques. It is possible to successfully produce powders of about 60 metals by is narrative writing CATS Canterbury, electrolysis. The majority of the writing essay Niagara metals are obtained by molten-salt electrolysis and powders of about 20 metals can be electrodeposited from aqueous solutions. How To Write Marian. However, while a larger number of metals can be obtained in powder form by molten-salt electrolysis, a much larger quantity of powders is produced by electrolysis from aqueous solutions.
This is Niagara College because the most important powders (copper, iron, and nickel) are obtained from aqueous solutions. (a) Overpotential; 200 mV, deposition time: 6 hours; (b) Overpotential: 300 mV, deposition time: 5 hours; (c) Overpotential: 700 mV, deposition time: 2 min. Electrolytic metal powder occurs mainly as a dendritic electrodeposit, which can spontaneously fall off or can be removed from the electrode by tapping or by other similar ways. (Also, the powder has a tendency to form flakes or needles, fibrous or spongy forms, etc., depending on the electrodeposition process parameters and on the nature of the metal). In Figure 3, the polarization curve for copper electrodeposition is shown, as well as cross sections of electrodeposits obtained in different overpotential ranges. Three ranges have been determined according to deposit structure: (a) compact metal, (b) rough deposit, and (c) true powder. How To An Autobiography High. These results show clearly that a distinction has to essay Niagara, be made between rough and powdery deposits. Obviously, the powder deposit is formed only at the end of the polarization curve plateau, at overpotential/ current density values larger than the critical values, as illustrated by Figure 3. Electrolytic powder can also be obtained by electrodeposition at a periodically changing (pulsating) rate. This method is based on essay writing School, the periodic repetition of current or overpotential waves. Essay Niagara College. Deposition at a periodically changing rate offers a number of possibilities for changing the deposition conditions at the essentially same deposition rate. In this way, powder particles with different grain size and being, morphology can be obtained by varying the wave characteristics.
It seems in writing Niagara, general, that the most pronounced effect can be achieved by the periodically changing regimes when the polarity of the current/voltage is reversed during the waves, resulting in an anodic dissolution of the deposit during parts of the thinker School wave. There are two effects of metal dissolution during anodic parts of current-overpotential waves on the morphology of metal powder particles. First, sharp points on electrode surface (characterized by low radii of curvature) dissolve faster than the writing a perfect essay dull points (characterized by large radii of curvature). This way, branching of dendrites can be decreased and the formation of agglomerates prevented. This makes powder particles less dendritic and more compact. This is illustrated in Figure 7, indicating the transformation of the shape of dendritic powder particles of write Marian High School lead due to the selective dissolution during the anodic current flow (compare the left and right pictures in Figure 7). A Perfect Niagara. Second, the metal adatoms on the surface, which are not in stable positions, dissolve easier than atoms from the websites Glenlyon crystal lattice, permitting formation of ideal crystal planes on the powder particles. This is illustrated by Figure 8. The powder particles of silver obtained by pulsating and polarity-reversing techniques are almost small monocrystals (compare with deposits shown in Figure 4). Electrolysis conditions favoring diffusion control of electrodeposition enhance the formation of electrolytic metal powder. For example, decrease of writing a perfect essay Niagara metal salt concentration, increase of concentration of indifferent electrolyte, decrease of being a critical Holderness School stirring rate, increase of Niagara College current density, decrease of temperature, and increase of viscosity of solution are all factors favoring powder formation. Besides the above-mentioned factors, the structure of the deposit also depends on the individual nature of the metal and the salt species used in the electrolyte solution.
The process of electrolytic metal powder production consists of: powder electrolysis, washing and stabilizing, drying, classification (according to particle size), screening, blending, and packing. Typical properties of electrolytic powders, as influenced by the conditions of electrolysis, will be illustrated for electrolytic copper powder in how to an autobiography Catholic, the Appendix. When dealing with powders, the a perfect essay Niagara College properties of both the individual particles and the collective (bulk) properties of the powder must be considered. The properties of single particles include size, shape, and microstructure, which can be determined by optical or scanning electron microscopic observations. Being A Critical Holderness. For a bulk powder, characterization implies the a perfect essay determination of, at least, the following properties: Basic chemical composition (The minimum percentage of the base metal or percentages of main elements in case of metal alloy powders.) Impurities and minor constituents (The percentage of impurities.) Particle size distribution (Determination of chosen particle fractions, that is, that portion which lies between two stated particle sizes or mesh sizes.
Square-mesh metal net sieving is the most frequently used method to size powder particles ranging larger than 5 µm. Very fine powders are measured through sedimentation in water or other appropriate liquids or with air ventilation or the Grier vacuum air-jet microsieve.) Specific surface (Powder specific surface is obtained adding together its granule surfaces contained in writing a perfect College, a mass unit and write an essay IUBH School of Business & Management, generally is expressed in a perfect essay College, cm 2 /g. The specific surface of metal powders is measured with permeameter-like devices, such as Lea and Nurse instrument, Blaine permeameter and the universally adopted Fischer Subsieve Sizer, and for very fine powders the gas adsorption method is adopted-BET method.) Apparent density (The weight per unit volume of a simply poured metal powder, which is always smaller than the density of the metal itself. It is how to write an essay about School measured letting the powder drop freely through a funnel to fill a 25 cm 3 cylindrical container. The ratio between mass and volume, that is, apparent density, is provided through leveling and weighing and is expressed in g/cm 3 . The apparent density depends on writing Niagara College, a series of factors, the more important of write an essay my life School which are as follows: metal true density, powder shape and structure, particle size distribution, corrosion resistance, etc.) Flowability (It is the speed at which powder flows through openings due to gravity. To assess the speed, standardized funnels with varying calibrated openings are used. A certain amount of powder is writing a perfect essay College poured in the funnel and the “flow time” is recorded.) All these properties of the electrodeposited metal powders are strongly, and in rather complicated manner, dependent on the conditions of electrolysis.
Some examples of the influence of debate of Wollongong in Dubai electrolysis conditions are described in writing a perfect essay Niagara, detail in write an essay about my life School, the Appendix below. As mentioned above, the apparent density, the flowability, and the specific surface are the most important properties of metal powders, but in practice the quality of the powder is mostly determined by writing a perfect essay College, the apparent density. The dependence of the apparent density on conditions of electrolysis is illustrated for copper powder deposition by the following diagrams. All conditions were kept constant as shown below, with the exception of the value of the test variable. Electrolyte composition: 5 g/l copper ions and 160 g/l sulphuric acid; cathodic current density: 0.3 A/cm 2 ; electrolyte flow rate: 0.17 l/min; time of powder removal (deposition time after which the powder is debate of Wollongong in Dubai removed by brush or by tapping): 60 min; temperature: (50±2) o C or (122±4) o F. The above diagrams are in agreement with previous discussions of the Niagara effect of how to an autobiography High School electrolysis conditions on the metal powder formation.
In all cases the decrease of apparent density, hence the increase of dendritic character of powder particles, indicates the increase of diffusion control of the deposition process. It is necessary to note that the above diagrams are valid only for process parameters indicated. A very small change of deposition conditions can considerably change the properties of the powder. Obviously, the powder particles from the same fractions of different powders occupy approximately the same volume, but with considerably different structure of metallic copper. It means that the more dendritic is the structure of essay Niagara College powder particles the smaller is the apparent density of copper powder. It is possible to a critical, plot the dependence of apparent density on the specific surface copper powder as can be seen from Fig. 16. The larger is the specific surface the lower is the apparent density. This is also obvious from Fig. 17.
The flowability of a metal powder depends on the interparticle friction, which is a perfect essay dominated by the surface area and surface roughness of the particles. As the surface area and an essay my life IUBH School, surface roughness increase, the amount of friction in the powder mass increases and the powder exhibits less efficient flow. The same appears with the shape of particle. The more irregular the particles shape is, the less efficient is the powder flow. Resistance to flow is the main feature of writing essay Niagara College friction, which decreases as the particles approach a smooth spherical shape.
The effect of particle size distribution on the powder flowability is also important. If the powder consists of particles with the same size, which are more or less in point contact with one another, making the contact surface as low as possible, even dendritic deposits can flow. If the powder consists of particles with different sizes, the interstitial voids of the larger particles can be filled by the smaller ones, the how to write an autobiography Marian contact surface area increases, and the flow of the powder is less efficient. As a result of this, a non-sieved powder often does not flow, while the fractions of the same powder flow. Hence, the best conditions for the free flow of the powder are fulfilled if the powder consists of particles with the same size, with spherical shape, and with a surface structure approaching the structure of a smooth metal surface. It can also be seen from Figures 17 and Niagara College, 18 that the surface structure of the particles determines the flowability of the of Wollongong in Dubai powder. From Figures 17(left) and 18(left) is obvious that the writing interweaving of how to write essay School particles is not possible, hence the powder will flow. On the writing a perfect Niagara other hand, from Figure 17(right) and is narrative writing CATS Canterbury, 18(right) can be seen that particles can interweave and the powder will not flow. The electrolytic metal powder is not formed of particles of identical size and morphology; the writing a perfect essay Niagara individual particles may assume various form and how to write an essay & Management, sizes, while the powders as associations of such particles exhibit, more or less, the same characteristics if are deposited under the identical conditions. Typical particle-size distribution curves for copper powders obtained at two different current densities are shown in Figure 19.
It is observed from Figures 12 and 19 that the particle-size of dominant fraction decreases with increasing current density, and that particle-size distribution curve is sharper. The 149-177 µm fraction of powder obtained at 0.18 A/cm 2 , presented in Figures 17(left) and 18(left) exhibit excellent flowability while the non-sieved powder shown in Figure 19 does not flow. This is because the smaller particles can abridge the larger particles and the flow of powder is prevented. Hence, the writing Niagara College surface structure of a non-sieved powder with good flowability must be more compact and websites Norfolk, smooth than the surface structure shown in Figures 17(left) and 18(left), such a powder is illustrated by writing a perfect, Figure 20. The critical apparent density for essay, free flowing non-sieved copper powder is about 2.2-2.3 g/cm 3 . Other properties of bulk powders can also be correlated with the writing essay Niagara properties of powder particles in a similar way. Fig. 3: K.I. Popov, M.G. Pavlovic, “Electrodeposition of metal powders with controlled particle grain size and morphology”, in Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry, Vol. 24, Edited by College, R.E. White, B.E.
Conway, and J.O'M. Bockris, Plenum Press, New York 1993, Chapter 6, p 312, Fig. 7. Reproduced with permission of writing essay Springer Science and Business Media. Fig. 4: E.R. Stojilkovic, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Belgrade.
Fig. 5 (left): V.D. Jovic, V. Maksimovic, M.G. Pavlovic, and importance School, K.I. Essay. Popov, “Morphology, internal structure and growth mechanism of electrodeposited Ni and Co powders”, to be published in the Journal of Solid State Electrochemistry (DOI 10.1007/s10008-005-0687-1). Reproduced with permission of Springer Science and essay University of Wollongong, Business Media. Fig. Writing Essay. 7: E.R. Stojilkovic, Ph.D. Thesis, University of Belgrade. Figs.
10-15: M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. An Autobiography Marian School. Pavlovic, N.D. Niagara. Nikolic, and being Holderness, K.I. Popov, “The effect of some parameters of electrolysis on apparent density of writing College electrolytic copper powder in galvanostatic deposition”, in Trends in Advanced Materials and Processes, (Proceedings), Materials Science Forum, Vol. 352 (2000) pp 65-72, Figs. 2 – 7. Edited by. D.P. Essay Websites. Uskokovic, G.A. Battiston, J.M. Nedeljkovic, S.K.
Milonjic and D.I. Rakovic. Reproduced with permission of essay College Trans. Tech. Write An Essay About IUBH School & Management. Publications. Fig. 16: K.I. Popov, P.M. Zivkovic, S.B. Krstic, “The apparent density as a function of the writing a perfect Niagara specific surface of copper powder and the shape of the particle size distribution curve”, J. Serb.
Chem. Soc., Vol. What Is Narrative Essay Writing CATS College Canterbury. 68 (2003) pp 903-907, Fig. 1. Writing Essay. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 17: K.I. Popov, M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Essay Free Glenlyon Norfolk. Pavlovic, E.R.
Ivanovic, S.B. Krstic, M.C. Essay. Obradovic, “The effect of the particle shape and structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. Essay Writing CATS College Canterbury. II. The experimental verification of the model of the representative powder particle”, J. Serb.
Chem. Soc., Vol. 68 (2003) pp 779-783, Figs. 2a and 2b. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 18: K.I. Popov, M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, E.R.
Ivanovic, S.B. Krstic, M.C. Obradovic, “The effect of the particle shape and a perfect Niagara, structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. Being Holderness School. II. Essay College. The experimental verification of the model of the representative powder particle”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., Vol.
68 (2003) pp 779-783, Figs. 3a and 5b. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Fig. 19: N. Ibl, “The Formation of being Powdered Metal Deposits” in writing essay Niagara College, Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering, Edited by. P. Delahay and C.W. Tobias, Vol. 2, Interscience, New York, pp 50-142, 1962, Figure 1. Reproduced with permission of John Wiley and Sons, Inc. Fig. 20: K.I. Popov, S.B.
Krstic, M.C. Obradovic, M.G. Pavlovic, L.J. Pavlovic, E.R. Being. Ivanovic, “The effect of the particle shape and structure on the flowability of electrolytic copper powder. Writing Essay. III.
A model of the essay free surface of writing a perfect essay College a representative particle of essay Marian flowing copper powder electrodeposited by reversing current”, J. Serb. Chem. Soc., Vol. Writing Essay. 69 (2004) pp 43-51, Fig. 1c. Reproduced with permission of The Serbian Chemical Society, Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro. Powder Metallurgy Science (2 nd edition), R. M. German, Metal Powder Industries Federation, Princeton, New Jersey, 1994.
Electrodeposition of Metal Powders with Controlled Particle Grain Size and Morphology, K. I. Popov and M. G. Pavlovic, in “Modern Aspects of Electrochemistry” Vol. Essay Websites Glenlyon Norfolk. 24, pp 299-391, R. E. White, B. E. Conway and J. O'M. Bockris (editors), Plenum Press, New York, 1993. Electrodeposition of Metal Powders, A. Calusaru, “Materials Science Monographs, Vol. A Perfect College. 3, Elsevier, New York, 1979. The Formation of Powdered Metal Deposits, N. Ibl, in “Advances in Electrochemistry and Electrochemical Engineering” Vol.
2, pp 50-142, P. Delahay and C. W. Tobias (editors), Interscience, New York, 1962.
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31 Free Writing Contests: Legitimate Competitions With Cash Prizes. When I was about writing essay Niagara College, 12, I saw an ad in a magazine for essay free Glenlyon Norfolk School a poetry contest that sounded fancy and a perfect College, impressive, something like “International Library of Poetry.” I bled poetry at that age, so I crossed my fingers and sent in a poem I’d been slaving over for weeks. And, lo and behold, the people behind the contest quickly wrote back to tell me my poem had been selected as a winner! I was speechless with honor. Of the thousands of poets who must have submitted to the contest #8212; no doubt many of them adults much wiser and more skilled than me #8212; my poem had been chosen to be featured in an exclusive, hardcover anthology! And honored on a something-karat-gold plaque!
Of course, I had to pay $50 if I wanted to write my life IUBH School see my work in print in the anthology, and I had to a perfect essay pay another $100 if I wanted the plaque. Those were the only “prizes.” Even as a pre-teen, I sensed a scam . Sadly, not much has changed when it comes to companies trying to take advantage of writers who want a chance at write an autobiography essay Marian Catholic School, recognition and maybe a little bit of money. Google the term “writing contests,” and you’ll come up with approximately 8 million results. It can be hard for a writer to know where to writing a perfect essay College start looking for competitions, and how to tell if they’re legitimate or not. So I’ve done the legwork for you. Here are 31 reputable, well-reviewed, free writing contests for poets, fiction writers, essayists and more. Some legitimate contests do charge a small entry or “reading” fee, but often a fee can be a red flag for a scam, so you may want to stick to free contests #8212; and there are certainly enough of them. Fiction and nonfiction writing contests. Ready to share your novel or personal essay with the world? Whether you’re a newbie or more established writer, you’re likely eligible for a few of these contests.
1. Thinker Holderness. L. Ron Hubbard Writers of the Future Contest. Whatever your feelings about L. Ron Hubbard’s work and philosophy, the prizes for this regular contest are nothing to Niagara College sneeze at. Every three months, winners earn $1,000, $750 and $500, or an additional annual grand prize worth $5,000. Submissions must be short stories or novelettes (up to 17,000 words) in the genre of science fiction or fantasy, and new and amateur writers are welcome to apply. Deadlines: Quarterly on January 1, April 1, July 1 and write essay High, October 1. 2. Graywolf Press Nonfiction Prize. Awarded to “the most promising and innovative literary nonfiction project by a writer not yet established in the genre,” this prize provides a $12,000 advance and a perfect, publication by Graywolf Press. If you live in the U.S. and have published at least one book (in any genre), you’re eligible to submit a current manuscript in progress for consideration. The judges look for winners who push the boundaries of School traditional literary nonfiction. Deadline: Contest is every other year, with the last one running in 2016.
The 2018 deadline has not been announced. You can win $15,000 and publication by the University of Pittsburgh Press with this prize, awarded for a collection of short fiction. You may submit an unpublished manuscript of short stories, two or more novellas or a combination of novellas and short stories. Your total word count should be between 150 and 300 typed pages. Deadline: Annual submission window is a perfect essay Niagara College, May 1 through June 30. Being Holderness School. Presented by St. Martin’s Press and WORDHARVEST, this prize awards the best first mystery novel set in the Southwest with $10,000 and publication by St.
Martin’s Press. It’s open to professional or non-professional writers who have not yet had a mystery published, and there are specific guidelines for a perfect Niagara College the structure of your story: “Murder or another serious crime or crimes must be at the heart of the story, with emphasis on the solution rather than the details of the crime.” 5. St. Francis College Literary Prize. This biannual prize honors mid-career writers who have recently published their third, fourth or fifth work of of writing essay Grier fiction. The winner receives $50,000 but must be able to appear at essay Niagara, St. Being Thinker School. Francis College in Brooklyn, NY to deliver a talk on their work and teach a mini-workshop in fiction to St. Francis students. Deadline: Biannually; the writing a perfect Niagara College, deadline for writing websites Glenlyon School work published between June 2015 and May 2017 is writing a perfect essay Niagara, May 15, 2017. This $10,000 award recognizes “young authors,” which the University, rules define as any author aged 35 or younger.
Submit any novel or short story published or scheduled to be published in the calendar year. Works must be written for adults; children’s or YA pieces are ineligible. Deadline: Annually in writing essay College the fall (most recently in August or September). 2017 deadline not yet announced. This boutique publishing firm offers a full-fledged publishing deal to its contest winner. Submit a novel of 20,000 words or more in writing CATS College any fiction genre (no fanfic, short stories or poetry) and if it’s selected, Inkitt will provide you with professional editing, a cover design, and 25 percent royalties. They also have a strategy to get you into the Amazon Top 100. Writing A Perfect Niagara. (Not too shabby.) Inkitt runs contests regularly, so be sure to check back often ! Deadline: See individual contest pages. 8. Real Simple’s Life Lessons Essay Contest.
Have you ever had a “eureka” moment? If you have, and you can write a compelling personal essay about it in no more than 1,500 words, you may be able to win $3,000 in Real Simple’s annual essay contest. Deadline: Annually; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. Presented by Lee Low Books, an essay Glenlyon Norfolk School, award-winning children’s book publisher, this award is given for a previously unpublished children’s picture book manuscript (of no more than 1,500 words) written by Niagara, a writer of color. The winner receives $1,000 cash and how to write Marian School, a standard publication contract. You may submit up to two manuscripts.
Deadline: Submissions must be postmarked by September 30 each year. Niagara College. 10. Ernest J. What. Gaines Award for Niagara College Literary Excellence. Of Writing School. This contest aims to provide visibility for emerging African American fiction writers and to essay Niagara College enable them to University of Wollongong in Dubai focus on their writing by awarding a $10,000 cash prize. Eligible authors should submit a work of fiction, such as a novel or short story collection, published in the calendar year. A Perfect College. Deadline: Annually; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. Honoring the how to write an autobiography essay Catholic, best work of fiction published by an American author in writing a perfect a single calendar year, this award has been given to essay free Glenlyon the likes of John Updike, Philip Roth and Ann Patchett. The winner receives $15,000 and an invitation to read at the award ceremony in Washington, DC. Four finalists also each receive a $5,000 award. Deadline: Annually on October 31 for books published that calendar year. Presented by the Brooklyn Film Arts Festival, this annual prize awards $500 cash for “the best Brooklyn-focused non-fiction essay which is set in Brooklyn and is about Brooklyn and/or Brooklyn people/characters.” (So it’s Brooklyn-centric, if you haven’t picked up on that yet.) Submissions should be four to 10 pages (up to 2,500 words), and a perfect College, five authors will be chosen to essay Grier School read and discuss their submissions at the annual December event.
Deadline: Annually in mid-November. Writing. Fiction and nonfiction writers who have recently published a book that “contributes to our understanding of Grier racism and our appreciation of the rich diversity of human cultures” are eligible for this award, which offers $10,000 cash as well media and writing College, publicity opportunities. Submissions must be published in the prior year (so books published in 2016 are eligible for the 2017 award). An Autobiography Essay High. Deadline: Annual submission window is September 1 through December 31. Writing Niagara College. 14. Marfield Prize (a.k.a. National Award for Arts Writing) Presented by the Arts Club of Washington, this award seeks to honor nonfiction books that deal with #8220;any artistic discipline (visual, literary, performing, or media arts, as well as cross-disciplinary works).” This may include criticism, art history, memoirs and biographies, and essays. Deadline: Annually in the last quarter of the write about IUBH School of Business & Management, year; the a perfect essay, 2017 deadline has not yet been announced.
15. W.Y. Boyd Literary Award for Excellence in Military Fiction. If you’re a war buff, this competition is for you. It awards $5,000 to what is narrative CATS College the best piece of essay fiction set during a period when the U.S. was at essay writing websites free, war (war may either be the main plot of the writing essay Niagara College, piece or simply provide the setting). Submissions may be adult or YA novels. Deadline: Annually on being a critical thinker December 1. 16. Friends of American Writers Chicago Awards.
FAW presents two annual awards: an Adult Literature Award for essay Niagara College literary fiction or nonfiction, and a Juvenile Literature Award for of writing Grier a children’s/YA book. Authors must reside in a perfect essay College the state of Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, North Dakota, Nebraska, Ohio, South Dakota or Wisconsin #8212; or they must set their book in write an essay about IUBH School & Management one of those locations. Prize amounts vary from year to writing essay year but are typically between $500 and $2,000. Is Narrative Essay CATS College. Deadline: Annually at the end of the year; 2017 deadline has not yet been announced. 17. Hektoen Grand Prix Essay Contest. Hektoen International, an writing, online journal dedicated to medical humanities, offers two prizes annually for essays of no more than 1,600 words in two categories. The Grand Prize of $1,200 is essay of Wollongong, given for an essay suited for their Famous Hospitals section, while a Silver Prize of $1,000 is given to writing a perfect essay the best essay suited for the sections of Art Flashes, Literary Vignettes, Moments in History or Physicians of Note. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. 18. Nelson Algren Short Story Award.
Presented by essay writing websites free Norfolk, the Chicago Tribune, this award presents $3,500 to one grand prize winner, $1,000 to four finalists and $500 to five runners-up for a short fiction story of less than 8,000 words. You may submit up to two short stories, but note that your name must not appear anywhere on your submission as the process is anonymous. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is not yet announced. 19. Minotaur Books / Mystery Writers of America First Crime Novel Competition. Writers 18 and older who have never had a novel published (in any genre) are eligible for this prize, awarded for an original book-length manuscript where “murder or another serious crime or crimes is at writing College, the heart of the story.” The winner receives a publication contract with Minotaur Books and an advance of $10,000 against future royalties. Deadline: Annually in the last quarter of the year. The deadline for 2017 awards has passed; the importance School, deadline for 2018 awards has not yet been announced. Essay Niagara College. Want to change the being a critical thinker Holderness School, world? Then listen up.
FutureScapes is looking for College concrete, substantive pieces that “can provide a roadmap for cities, states, and nations to follow.” If you just want to write the next Hunger Games , this isn’t the contest for you, but if you’re inspired by debate University in Dubai, politics and a perfect Niagara, civic issues, you’ve found the importance School, right place. (Case in point: the inaugural theme, “ Empowerment Cities ,” features a quote from writing a perfect essay Niagara College, Alexis de Tocqueville.) First place wins $2,000; second place $1,000; and four runners-up will get $500 each. Oh, and did we mention publication in an anthology that will be “distributed to mayors, governors and members of the writing CATS, U.S. Writing Niagara College. Congress”? Deadline: Annually; deadline for 2017 is is narrative essay writing College, TBD. This biennial prize of $10,000 honors an American author whose work has had an essay Niagara College, impact on debate a critical social justice issue (as did Harriet Beecher Stowe’s novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin ). In addition to submitting a copy of your book or written work, you must also complete a 250-word statement that describes the tangible impact your piece has made in the world and writing a perfect essay College, outlining any social justice work you perform outside of your writing. Importance Essay Grier School. Deadline: Biennially in odd-numbered years. The deadline for 2017 awards has passed, and the deadline for 2019 have not yet been announced. 22.
The Diana Woods Memorial Award in Creative Non-Fiction. Creative nonfiction essays of no more than 5,000 words on any subject, are eligible for consideration for this award, whose winner receives $250 and writing a perfect College, publication in Lunch Ticket , the literary and art journal produced by a critical thinker Holderness School, the MFA community of Antioch University Los Angeles. Works must not have been published elsewhere. Award winners are required to submit a 100-word biography, recent photo and a short note thanking the Woods family for their generosity and support. Deadlines: Biannual reading periods are the writing essay, month of February for of writing essay the Summer/Fall issue and the month of August for the Winter/Spring issue.
This contest seeks to foster collaborations between artists and writers. Niagara. Select a piece of artwork from the gallery provided and an essay about my life of Business, submit a short story inspired by it and you could win $350 #8212; plus a spot in a future art book showcasing these collaborations. Writing. Short stories should be between 2,000 5,000 words. Is Narrative Writing CATS College. Deadline: Annually; 2017 has passed and 2018 deadline is writing, not yet announced. For young writers ages 13-18, this cool contest also serves as a mini writer’s camp.
Recognizing that “a first draft is never perfect,” submissions actually receive peer review by authors, writing teachers and other experts and writers are given the chance to revise their pieces based on this feedback before submitting them for final prize consideration. There’s a $100 prize for the winner and $50 for an essay School & Management the runner-up (plus $50 for the best peer-reviewer). All three are featured on Write the World’s blog alongside comments from a guest judge. And since each month’s prompt is from a different genre, developing writers get a chance to test out different styles. Stuck with writer’s block and looking for writing essay Niagara a way to jumpstart your escape? Prose offers weekly challenges meant to spark your creativity; many are just for fun, but look for importance of writing essay Grier the weekly numbered challenges posted by essay Niagara College, Prose (rather than community members or sponsors) for a chance to win money. Prizes are typically between $100 $200 and word counts are low #8212; some as low as under 150, some as high as 500, but all say “quality beats quantity.” So even if all you get from the prompt is essay Grier School, a chance to writing a perfect essay Niagara flex your brain, it’s not a bad deal.
Curious about opportunities for poets? Your stanzas #8212; rhyming or not #8212; could be worth a fair amount of money in is narrative essay writing CATS College Canterbury these competitions. 26. A Perfect Essay College. Naomi Long Madgett Poetry Award. Open to African American poets, previously published or not, this award provides a $500 prize and essay of Wollongong, publication by Boardside Lotus Press for the best book-length collection of writing a perfect essay College poems (approximately 60 to 90 pages).
Deadline: Annually on March 1. Grier School. If you’re already a published poet, this is the award for you; it’s given for essay Niagara a second book of Marian Catholic High School poetry due to come out in the forthcoming year. Writing Niagara College. The winner receives $5,000 and an all-expenses-paid week-long residency. In addition, copies of her book are distributed to the 1,000 members of the Academy of debate essay of Wollongong American Poets. Deadline: Annual submission window is January 1 through May 15. 28. Essay Niagara. African Poetry Book Fund Prizes. The APBF awards three prizes annually for African Poetry.
The Glenna Luschei Prize for debate University of Wollongong in Dubai Afican Poetry gives $5,000 for a book of essay original African poetry published in the prior year. The Sillerman First Book Prize for African Poets gives $1,000 and a publication contract for an unpublished book-length collection of essay in Dubai poetry by an African author. The Brunel University African Poetry Prize is a new prize that grants ?3,000 to writing a perfect a poet who was born in Africa, is Grier School, a national of an African country or has African parents, who has not yet had a full-length book of poetry published. (U.S. A Perfect Niagara College. citizens qualify.) To submit, you’ll need 10 poems. Deadlines: See individual prize pages. Claremont Graduate University presents two awards each year to poets they deem to be “outstanding.” The Kate Tufts Poetry Award grants $10,000 for a published first book of poetry that shows promise.
The Kingsley Tufts Poetry Award grants a mammoth $100,000 for how to an autobiography essay Marian Catholic a published book of poetry by an an established or mid-career poet. Deadline: Books published between July of the previous year and June 30 of the writing a perfect Niagara College, current year are eligible for the following year’s prize (i.e. How To About School Of Business. award for 2017 was for works publishing between between July 1, 2015 and writing a perfect College, June 30, 2016). Deadline for 2018 awards has not yet been announced. Writing contests with multiple categories. Some contests accept submissions in multiple categories, so you could submit a novella as well as a poem or other work. 30.
Binghamton University Book Awards. Sponsored by the Binghamton Center for Writers #8212; State University of New York, this competition offers a $1,000 prize for work published in the previous year in two separate categories. The John Gardner Fiction Book Award goes to the best novel or collection of fiction, while the Milt Kessler Poetry Book award goes to essay writing CATS Canterbury the best book of poems. Deadline: Annually on March 1 for books published the previous year. 31. Writer’s Digest Annual Writing Competition. (Editor’s note: We were so excited to include this competition that we overlooked its entry fees. We’ll leave it in the post for those interested in submitting their work, but please note that this contest is not free.) One of the longest-running writing competitions #8212; it’s now in its 83rd year #8212; this contest spotlights up and coming writers in College a number of being Holderness School categories, including Memoirs/Personal Essay, Magazine Feature Article and Genre Short story. The Grand Prize winner gets $5,000, a feature in writing a perfect essay College Writer’s Digest magazine, a paid trip to a writing conference and write an autobiography essay Marian Catholic School, more. Runners-up earn prizes in writing essay College first through tenth places.
Deadline: Annually; May 5, 2017. Where to find more legitimate, free writing contests. Looking for what is narrative Canterbury more opportunities to submit your work to writing contests? Here are a few great sites to keep an eye on. A number of the contests found on our list came highly recommended by this site, which compiles some of the best free literary contests out there. You can sort contests by recommendation level (Highly Recommended, Recommended or Neutral), view plenty of info on requirements and a perfect essay Niagara, even see which contests are better for beginners, intermediate writers and pros.
They also offer a handful of contests themselves , including the Wergle Flomp Humor Poetry Contest (which sounds delightful). How To. Another fantastic source for a perfect essay Niagara legitimate writing contests I consulted when compiling this list, Poets Writers vets competitions, contests, awards and being a critical Holderness School, grants to make sure they’re following legitimate practises and policies. It’s worth checking out regularly as it features both annual and one-time contests. Writer, poet and a perfect College, editor Cathy Bryant sources legitimate, free-to-enter writing contests and calls for submission. She releases a new list of contests and calls each month, so check back monthly for new opportunities. Essay. Are you planning to writing enter any writing contests this year? Which ones? This post contains affiliate links. That means if you purchase through our links, you’re supporting The Write Life — and we thank you for that! This post originally ran in February 2016. We updated it in March 2017.
Kelly Gurnett runs the blog Cordelia Calls It Quits and is growing her own freelance writing, editing and blogging empire day by day. You can follow her on Twitter and Facebook and hire her services here. Move from irregular client work and how to an autobiography School, crappy pay to being a freelance leader in writing a perfect Niagara College your field. Paul Jarvis, who#8217;s been freelancing for 16+ years, shares his advice on pricing, positioning and more. What a brilliant list! Thank you. Thank you too for being a critical thinker Holderness School the mention of a perfect essay Niagara College Comps and Calls I love finding free writing competitions, and some of them have very impressive prizes. Of Writing Essay School. I#8217;m one of those old-fashioned writers who think that we should be paid for our work and College, free comps are a great way of achieving that. I#8217;m with you on that #8220;old-fashioned#8221; notion. #128578; Can I take part being Pakistan? Ha!
Of course! I get emails from debate essay of Wollongong, people all over the world who have had success via Comps and Calls. Good luck! While free writing contests are definitely great, it would be a little odd to overlook ones with fees. A lot of times you will be paying a fee somewhere along the way, it#8217;s just nice when it#8217;s upfront and not in the form of stealing your work. Check this one out, insider tip: Good advice, Tiffany. For example, the Erma Bombeck Writing Competition (https://www.wclibrary.info/erma/) opens for entries on December 4, 2017, and there is a $15 fee which goes to fund four prizes ($500 to each winner plus a free registration, valued at a perfect, $400+, to the Erma Bombeck Writers Workshop at the University of Dayton, April 2018). Entry length must be 500 words or less for either a Humorous or Human Interest entry. I have problems in essay writing websites free Glenlyon Norfolk School finding short story competitions as I live in writing a perfect College England. If you do post any short story competitions or any in the literary format, that would excite my senses. You may want to check out these sites- but be aware, some require subscriptions, give precedence to subscribers or charge small entry fees; but not all do, and there are some free entrance comps in Canada that are worthwhile. (These are monthly.) There are many more, I#8217;ve only writing free, begun to root those out.- I#8217;ll post more as I discover them. Essay. my problem is that I am disabled and debate essay University of Wollongong, I am looking for grant help.
Looking for a contest that my 10 old son can enter or a publishing company that can help with self-publishing. Any recommendation or advice please? Please contact the publisher to discuss self-publishing for your son. Our university just launched a new competition (no entry fee, no gimmicks) called FutureScapes. We#8217;re an innovation office, and we#8217;re looking for help from writers to help us envision cities of the future. Hugo-Award winning author Mary Robinette Kowal will be our judge this inaugural year. $2,000 for first place. I#8217;ve added it to July#8217;s list for Comps and calls. Many thanks for getting in touch! Pity I cannot contest, being Sri Lankan. sigh Stop discriminating writers. I#8217;m a South African and I#8217;d like to enter this competition.
I#8217;m already have the script. hello sir, would it be possible for me to join even if I#8217;m from the Philippines? Old fashioned notions were/are just once legitimate notions of claims for money or what else, when in a perfect Niagara a time there were hardly or very little amount of writing gigs to what essay writing Canterbury get; let alone having someone getting paid for it. Now it is like there are too many people as working in the business here of transposing things across for a perfect a living. That really the being Holderness School, only thing these vetted competitions do now is, just bunch up a bunch of people who cannot write, among judges judging as judges cannot much write either, and a perfect essay College, they sit around give a small vagabond gift amount of money in discovery for those who suck less at it. As really a sign should go up before hand about how real writers we really need not to apply here anymore.
As none of the spirit of writing is left of writing. Everyone writes politically correct as only to an essay my life IUBH School of Business & Management affirm the lack for want of any real creativity getting dispersed. Amen to that! I#8217;ve read winners#8217; stories of a certain contest that is held by a magazine every year which I will not name and when I see the a perfect essay Niagara College, judges#8217; names, I think #8220;Well, they don#8217;t know anything about writing!#8221; No wonder this was chosen. Speak for yourself, honey. I#8217;ve got a very politically INCORRECT story I#8217;m working on right now. Who knows if anyone will publish it, though. It#8217;s satirical and quite offensive.
While I like how your not afraid to speak your mind, and I really have no say in what you put in your books, could you please try not to offend too many people? This is how to write my life School & Management, just a suggestion, so feel free to do whatever you like. My mind is full of a perfect Niagara College stories to essay College tell.. Writing Niagara. I am an idea person. Is there a place in this writers world for one like myself? Perhaps a writer lacking an idea? My mind screams..my voice mute. #128577; Maybe you just need a writing partner. A Critical Thinker Holderness School. You have my attention.
I love to write, but I am almost always of essay of ideas#8230; Maybe you can let me know. Were do I find the legitmate ways to to get paid for entering contests? many are. scams so far that I researched, and entered. please let me know thanks. I would like to find work online and get paid weekly by check through the mail. do you know of such? Nice Post and thanks for the sharing free Legitimate contest list. Grier. can i participate from sri lanka?? Every competition has its own rules, so you#8217;d have to check the writing essay Niagara College, rules of the one you want to Holderness School enter. Many are open worldwide, though, so good luck! I see you havent included the South African Writers college competition held annually..its free to enter and the 1st prize is R10,000.. The theme this year is #8220;A person#8217;s world is only as big as his heart#8221; Deadline April 30th. Writing A Perfect Essay Niagara. Only open to South African writers who have not been published.
Contests with a deadline past 1st April haven#8217;t gone up yet I put them up monthly at being a critical thinker Holderness School, Comps and Calls. Is there an writing a perfect essay, URL with guidelines? Yes, the debate in Dubai, URL for the College is :www.sawriterscollege.co.za. Writing A Perfect Niagara College. Its only for unpublished SA writers but the websites Glenlyon Norfolk School, prizes are pretty darned good: R10,000. R5,000 and a perfect essay Niagara, R2000#8230; and its free to enter. Cheers Ginny. Thanks!
I#8217;ve added it to the list. It#8217;ll go up on 1st April and will be in the #8216;Competitions#8217; section. Thanks for that and importance essay Grier School, best wishes. Here’s another competition for writing essay Niagara College your list, this one for women only, memoir and contemporary/historical fiction: http://www.storycircle.org/SartonLiteraryAward/ Susan Wittig Albert. Sarton Award Coordinator. Thanks for sharing, Susan! TWL Assistant Editor. This one has a $60 entry fee. Got anything for children? I#8217;m only how to write essay Catholic High, twelve, and essay College, yet I am currently working on my own fantasy/science fiction that can be entered into several of these contests. I#8217;m only twelve, and yet I am currently working on being a critical thinker Holderness my own fantasy/science fiction book (full lengh) that can be entered into several of Niagara College these contests.
The entry fee for the SCN competition is $90 and the prize money is $150.00 does this look enticing to anyone, considering the writing free, effort involved for the author? Thanks for this excellent list, Kelly! I#8217;ll be adding a direct link to writing College it to my recent post over at about IUBH School & Management, The Kill Zone called #8220;Indie Book Contests 2015#8221; http://killzoneblog.com/2015/02/indie-book-contests-2015.html. and I#8217;ll also add a link on my ongoing, continually updated list of Writers#8217; Conferences Book Festivals in North America: Thanks for sharing this post, Jodie! TWL Assistant Editor. I like the writing a perfect essay College, competitions but I#8217;m in South Africa? Can#8217;t I enter? I think taking people only in one country isn#8217;t fair because there is a great deal of a critical thinker talent out there that just needs to be found. Yes. Also in SA, and I find it sooooo hard finding a compitition I can do.
Sounds like there is College, a need for writing competitions in SA. Importance School. Why not start some?! Apologies for a perfect essay the n00b question but out of interest when they say #8216;unpublished#8217; do they mean unpublished which would include self published ebooks? And if you were to submit something previously published on Kindle or Smashwords or the like could you take it down for a period and essay Grier School, still be considered? I#8217;d check the specific guidelines for writing essay College each contest. Some specify whether situations like self-publication are acceptable or not. Free. If the guidelines don#8217;t go into a perfect essay College, any detail on that, you could always try contacting the organization sponsoring the contest. I#8217;m not sure about pulling down something that HAS previously been published, however.
That feels like a risky gamble that might get you in a critical thinker Holderness trouble. Thanks for writing a perfect essay posting this list. When it comes to short stories, I never think about competitions and always look for publications instead. This is a great reminder of a critical Holderness another valid option. Writing A Perfect Essay Niagara College. Thanks, Kelly, for this interesting article and list. One does have to how to essay Catholic watch out for scams and ineffective ways of publishing your work. And entering legitimate writing contests sounds a lot more challenging and rewarding. When I was a college student, I had written some poems and essays, and was encouraged by friends to get them published. Being the babe in the woods I was at the time, I got about 30 to 40 copies published through a local #8220;vanity press,#8221; which cost me about $80 at the time. Essay. Learned my lesson to avoid being so vain. Hello Kelly!
Thank you for providing us with this awesome list! #128512; Good compilation, will be of great help to me. Thanks for sharing. Correction: the Writer#8217;s Digest contests are NOT free to enter. There are different fees listed on the site, as follows: #8220;Early-Bird Entry fees are $25 for the first manuscript; $20 for each additional entry submitted during the same transaction. Poems are $15 for the first entry; $10 for each additional poem submitted submitted during the same transaction. Entries submitted after the May 4, 2015 Early-Bird deadline are $30 for the first manuscript; $25 for each additional entry submitted during the is narrative CATS College, same transaction. Poems are $20 for the first entry; $15 for each additional poem submitted submitted during the same transaction.#8221; Thanks, Laura!
Another reader brought this to a perfect College our attention as well, and I#8217;ve added a note to the post. TWL Assistant Editor. You are absolutely wright and why they are not recommended on Predators Editors. Your use of #8220;wright#8221; makes me wonder about any writing skills you may possess#8230; Everyone makes the odd mistake. Don#8217;t judge someone by a single typo. It is how to write my life IUBH School, eye and I prefer to poses and to writing essay College use my pen as the double edged sword it is don#8217;t worry lady i#8217;m sure this went over his head also. This was a lot of work, but such a great resource for writers. Thanks for sharing this!
I#8217;m just so stunned that the horrid poetry-competition people had so little concern for such a young aspirant poet, what a sick twisted lot they are, and a critical Holderness School, you#8217;re right, this kind of dream-baiting continues. Sharks and charlatans all, but the good thing is that you didn#8217;t give up on your dream of writing, so you go girl -go for gold and more power to Niagara you! Sadly, there are all sorts of ways writers and wannabe writers can fall into the wrong hands, from scam competitions to content mills that pay pennies per word. It#8217;s all about knowing where to look for the legitimate resources. (This site is a great place to start.) #128578; I wrote a piece to this site called the Eber Wein publishing. About IUBH School Of Business. how well do you know about writing College, them? is this site scam? I never. sent in a critical thinker Holderness School any money I was told I could win cash, and writing essay Niagara, prizes, and. my name can be in this analogy. then you have to buy that. Thanks for write an essay IUBH the list. Please can you give more lists for contests for African writers? Great list of resources for free contests.
I quite often scour Poets Writers for possibilities and have heard of some of the others, like Story Circle Network, but some of writing a perfect essay Niagara College these were quite new to me. Appreciate the time it takes to curate such a list and so glad you shared it with us. I#8217;ll be passing it along to some of my friends and followers. Can I join this Writing Contests ? I live in India. Kindly respond me. You#8217;ll have to check with the individual competitions to see whether they allow worldwide entries.
Good luck! TWL Assistant Editor. Is there any writing contest in Peabody and essay writing Glenlyon Norfolk, I never public a book but can I still enter the writing contest is a perfect essay, there more writing contest for Peabody with out scams . This is Marian Catholic High School, a great list but is Niagara College, this just for writers in the US. I am in writing websites free Norfolk the UK. Fair point, Ian #8212; we#8217;re based in the U.S. and know more about competitions here. We#8217;ll see what we can do about a more international follow-up! TWL Assistant Editor. Ian, Comps and Calls (that Heather lists) is UK-based. Although I include many international calls, it is UK-centric, simply because that#8217;s my largest area of knowledge. Thanks for chiming in, Cathy #8212; good to know!
All credit for the list goes to writing Kelly Gurnett, though #128578; TWL Assistant Editor. Thank you so much. I#8217;m so inspired seeing these all lined up in one place. Cheers! This is of writing essay School, well time for me and I am excited. I#8217;m looking for ways to gain money for my Master#8217;s and get recognized for essay Niagara College the love of my heart: writing. I#8217;m applying to some now and writing College Canterbury, even composing new pieces. I#8217;ve even set aside a certain amount of money that I#8217;m writing to give to enter. I love to essay Niagara College write as well!
I am only ten years old though, so I probably won#8217;t be able to enter many contests even if I wanted to. I#8217;m writing a novel called Cat Quest. Its not childish and stupid. I#8217;m actually serious. I work on it about debate in Dubai, every other day or when I get time. I#8217;m not lying. Could you experienced authors give me some tips? Appreciate this list, my writing goal for this year- well, one of them, is to seek new writing and publishing opportunities and challenges. Thank you.
We provide a contest where you get paid either way, so long as you make the cut. Writing College. It#8217;s a bit different from the average writing contest, in that it is a public head to head battle. Check out thewritersarena.com for more info. Thanks for being thinker Holderness sharing, Tony! TWL Assistant Editor. That doesn#8217;t offer any prize, does it?
Thanks for sharing, posted your site on my blog: hoyeocmova.com. At FanStory.com we have a membership fee $6.95 per month (or $48 for one year or $67 for two years). With the membership fee you can enter all of our contests at no charge. That#8217;s over 50 contests every month. Some have a cash prize ($100) and others are just for essay Niagara the fun of the competition.
Thanks for sharing, Tom! Wish to get info on free contests for poets in Nigeria. Hey.. I have a short story of my stolen childhood.. Is Narrative Writing. Its a memoir.. It has touched a lot of ppl nd its very deep.. Writing Essay Niagara. A lot of ppl who have read it has gained goose bumps nd a lot of others has related a lot to it.. I have councillors stating I should get it published as its very helpful to thoughts who have been through similar.. I write a lot about life nd the deeper I go with my words the University of Wollongong, more ppl feel it..
I have had a few ppl state they felt like it was happening to them the writing a perfect College, words stand out so much.. The only problem is as u see here with this paragraph I#8217;m not so good with my editing.. Debate Essay University In Dubai. I don#8217;t know how or where to start with getting my writing seen to for hell in writing College weather I can get my words out there.. I wouldn#8217;t mind starting with competitions but its also great to essay School have someone around that knows where nd how to help me start to get this out there.. Essay Niagara College. My email is firstname.lastname@example.org I got a feeling this is a long shot but I#8217;m keen to start somewhere.. It would be a great honor if u could pls give me some advice on where or how to start.. If u could pls email me I will be an honour.
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Free Information Technology essays. Internet telephony or Voice over Internet Protocol (VoIP) is a product that is quickly changing the a perfect essay College telecom industry and how people communicate. What Is Narrative Essay Writing Canterbury! With the rise of VoIP services means nothing less than the death of the traditional telephone business. VoIP is an writing a perfect College, emerging technology that utilizes the Internet infrastructure to make phone calls as opposed to the traditional public switched telephone network (PSTN) that has been in place for more than a century. With VoIP there is the ability to make free phone calls over the high-speed Internet connection which undermines the existing price model for telephony. Since VoIP functions like a traditional telephone system but travels through a broadband Internet connection, the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) has questioned how to classify VoIP. Should it be classified as an information service or a telecommunication service? If VoIP is classified as an information service then it would generally be free from FCC regulation under the Telecommunications Act of 1996.
On the how to write an essay my life IUBH of Business & Management other hand if VoIP is a perfect Niagara classified as a telecommunication service then it would be subject to a comprehensive regulatory regime and of writing Grier common carrier obligations. As we know with any new technology, there will be legal and writing a perfect essay Niagara regulatory impact. Debate In Dubai! VoIP will challenge the current regulatory framework and rules. Facing this new technology, the United States must determine what regulatory framework should apply to the regulation and administration of VoIP. In the United States telecommunications is highly regulated industry but currently the Internet remains largely unregulated.
This research paper has four main objectives. Part one will discuss the regulatory issue and the classification of VoIP as either a ‘telecommunications service’ or an ‘information service.’ Part two will address how the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) classifies VoIP services. Part three will address the benefits and risks of VoIP service to writing a perfect essay Niagara businesses. Part four will discuss the growing issue of network neutrality and importance of writing essay School its necessity. The last section of my paper will be the conclusion that addresses the open debate on whether VoIP services should be regulated. PART I: REGULATION ISSUES. This section of my research paper will discuss the regulation issues between Public Switched Telephone Network (PTSN) and VoIP. Let’s get started by talking about some of the public safety issues that concern state regulators. The first public safety issue is around access to emergency services such as 911. What is a perfect Niagara College important to note here is that the technology consumer’s use should not matter. But what does matters is that consumers have access to emergency services.
When using a traditional PSTN line, people in trouble dial 911 on their phone and writing websites Norfolk the police department can quickly determine their location. However, when using VoIP service a user can make a call from anywhere around the world but the call will originate from the user’s home phone number. The Federal Communications Commission (FCC) requires that providers of Niagara, ‘interconnected’ VoIP services that use the how to essay Marian Catholic High School Public Switched Telephone Network (PSTN) meet Enhanced 911 (E911) obligations. The FCC imposed many requirements. The first requirement is that all interconnected VoIP providers must provide 911 services as a standard. The second requirement is that the VoIP provider must obtain from the customers the location at which the service will be used. The third requirement is that interconnected VoIP providers must be able to transmit all 911 calls.
The fourth requirement is for interconnected VoIP providers to clearly articulate to a perfect essay College their customers the possible limitations of essay College, their 911 service and receive acknowledgement from them. The last requirement involves the writing Public Safety Answering Point (PSAP). PSAP will be used when emergency service providers are not capable of receiving or processing the is narrative essay CATS College Canterbury location information of the essay College call received. However, there are still differences between VoIP E911 and traditional telephone 911 service in that they work differently. The second public safety issue relates to wiretapping access for law enforcement. The telephone system plays a critical role in law enforcement. FBI officials can easily tap into PSTN circuits but have difficulty with intercepting circuits used in VoIP. FBI supports its beliefs that VoIP service providers must allow wiretapping under the Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act (CALEA). According to the FCC website, ‘CALEA requires a “telecommunications carrier,” as defined by the Act, to ensure that equipment, facilities, or services that allow a customer or subscriber to “originate, terminate, or direct communications,” enable law enforcement officials to conduct electronic surveillance pursuant to court order or other lawful authorization. Debate Essay Of Wollongong In Dubai! CALEA was intended to preserve the ability of writing essay College, law enforcement agencies to being Holderness conduct electronic surveillance by requiring that telecommunications carriers and manufacturers of Niagara, telecommunications equipment modify and design their equipment, facilities, and services to ensure that they have the necessary surveillance capabilities as communications network technologies evolve.’ FCC Encyclopedia Print Email. (n.d.).
Communications Assistance for Law Enforcement Act. Retrieved February 15, 2014, from how to about my life IUBH of Business, http://www.fcc.gov/encyclopedia/communications-assistance-law-enforcement-act. Currently only PSTN service providers and wireless phone services have been subject to writing a perfect College this legislation. The issue is VoIP is not defined as a telecommunications carrier and if it was it would then be subject to CALEA. What Is Narrative Essay Writing! VoIP is an Internet based application and is classified as Title I ‘Information Services’ which are lightly regulated. The Commission has deregulated information services which mean the states cannot regulate them. VoIP may mimic traditional telephone service in functionality but it does transmit over the Internet rather than the public switched telephone network. This is where the issue comes into play, can states regulate Title II service carried over Title I network? The Commission has provided very little guidance regarding this question. Now let’s move on to talk about the tax dilemma.
Should VoIP be taxed in the same way as traditional telephone? The traditional phone service carries a lot of different taxes such as state, federal and local taxes. Writing Essay Niagara! Depending on where you live, some areas charge a county tax. Should these same taxes apply to how to write Catholic VoIP? Regulators argue that VoIP is a telecommunication service no different than a phone service and therefore should pay the same taxes and fees. Others argue that VoIP is a data service, not a phone service; therefore, it shouldn’t be regulated or taxed like the traditional public telephone networks. On the other hand States do have a distinct interest in taxing telecommunications services because they rely on these taxes to a perfect essay fund universal services such as 911 services. Currently there are some taxes included on company’s VoIP bill but it is far less than a traditional landline. VoIP providers are under pressure to contain these costs to debate in Dubai remain competitive.
I believe that hands off approach to Niagara College VoIP should be considered to allow the technology to mature to IUBH School of Business encourage our economy to be competitive and to wait and see what direction it will take to encourage more investment and a perfect essay College uptake. If you take the advances of the technology you may inhibit its adoption. VoIP services should dodge these fees because communications occur mostly over the Internet rather than PSTN line when you make a VoIP call. Simply put, VoIP is classified as an information service and not telecom carriers. PART II: HOW DOES THE FCC CLASSIFY VoIP SERVICES. This is a Federal Regulation issue and regulators are trying to determine and/or define what VoIP is and importance of writing essay School where it falls in the context of existing framework. The FCC will need to decide whether to classify VoIP as an information service or as a telecommunications service. According to US law, an information service is generally free from regulation while a telecommunications service may be subject to old line common carrier requirements. The Telecommunications Act of 1996 sets forth the differences in a perfect essay Niagara College definition and regulation of Glenlyon, these services. Per page 991 of our textbook, ‘The definitions of the terms ‘telecommunications service’ and ‘information service’ established by writing a perfect essay the 1996 Act are similar to what is narrative essay College the Computer II basic- and enhanced-service classifications. ‘Telecommunications service”the analog to basic service’is ‘the offering of telecommunications for a fee directly to the public’regardless of the facilities used.’ 47 U.S.C. ??153(46). ‘Telecommunications’ is ‘the transmission, between or among points specified by a perfect essay Niagara College the user, of information of the user’s choosing, without change in the form or content of the information as sent and received.’ ??153(43). ‘Telecommunications carrier[s]”those subjected to mandatory Title II common-carrier regulation’are defined as ‘providers] of telecommunications services.’ ??153(44).
And ‘information service”the analog to enhanced service’is ‘the offering of importance of writing essay School, a capability for essay College, generating, acquiring, storing, transforming, processing, retrieving, utilizing, or making available information via telecommunications.’ Benjamin, S. M., Lichtman, D. G., Shelanski, H., Weiser, P. J. (2006). Telecommunications Law and Policy, Second Edition. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press. If the FCC chooses to define VoIP under Title One of the debate Telecommunications Act, it would make VoIP essentially regulation-free, much like other Internet content. But if the FCC chooses the writing Niagara latter and defines VoIP under Title Two, the government will regulate VoIP under the myriad of being a critical Holderness, regulations that has been developed for the telephone industry.
The application of this classification to different types of VOIP services is based on two FCC rulings in a perfect essay College 2004. In FCC Vonage Order 11-2004 the district court examined the recent history of regulations governing the telecommunications industry. Being A Critical! The court found in its 1980 Computer II decision, the FCC had recognized the growing challenges posed by the interaction between computers and telecommunications technology. Writing Essay Niagara! ‘The premier legacy of how to write an autobiography essay High, Computer II is the establishment of the basic versus enhanced dichotomy. College! This layered approach to regulation becomes the bedrock of the computer inquiries success, and essay writing websites free School distinguishes it from writing a perfect, other international schemes. It established a bright-line test and amplified the separation of the communications facility from the enhancement.’ Cybertelecom: Computer II. How To Write An Autobiography Essay Marian Catholic School! (n.d.). Cybertelecom: Computer II. Writing A Perfect Essay College! Retrieved February 14, 2014, from http://www.cybertelecom.org/ci/cii.htm. At that time, the FCC distinguished between ‘basic services’ like telephone service and ‘enhanced services’ like computer-processing service offered over telephone lines noting that ‘basic services’ would continue to writing Glenlyon Norfolk School be regulated by writing a perfect essay Title Two while ‘enhanced services’ would go unregulated. Thinker Holderness! The FCC further stated that the absence of regulation of ‘enhanced services’ offers the greatest potential for efficient utilization and full exploitation of the interstate telecommunications network. Vonage’s VoIP service offers an enhanced service not a telecommunications service under the Commission’s rules.
The FCC and the United States District Court of Minnesota recognized that Vonage’s VoIP service is an information service and cannot be regulated by the states. Based on this federal policy, current federal regulators continue to keep VoIP free from writing a perfect Niagara College, regulation. The FCC concluded in February 2004 that Pulver.com’s Free World Dialup , a service that facilitated voice communication between computer users over the Internet, was an unregulated information service, in part because the company did not provide transmission and did not charge for its services. The FCC explained that traditional telephone rules do not necessarily apply to all voice services and that state-by-state regulation of a wholly Internet-based service is a critical thinker Holderness School inconsistent with the controlling federal role over interstate commerce required by the Constitution. The FCC’s decision in writing a perfect essay Niagara this case was that Pulver’s computer-to-computer services were ‘Information Services’ instead of is narrative essay CATS College Canterbury, ‘Telecommunications’. Pulver’s services were under the deregulatory framework of Title I of the Communications Act instead of the highly regulated common carrier telephone regime of Title II of the writing a perfect essay Niagara College Act. Title II captures all the how to write essay School traditional, land-line monopoly telephone services. Pulver’s service did not involve PSTN to warrant common carrier telephone regulation.
PART III: THE BENEFITS AND RISKS TO SOCIETY. Many businesses are cancelling their traditional land lines in favor of the new technology VoIP due to the reaping benefits of Niagara College, cost savings, data integration, productivity, efficiency and system portability. While VoIP services can be less expensive than standard telephone network services, call quality can be a factor in essay of Wollongong one’s decision to a perfect switch to VoIP. Being A Critical! However, with constant innovation and updates to VoIP will make its service comparable to the traditional phone system. Although VoIP may offer some good benefits, businesses need to be aware and understand the risks as well. With any new technology, it’s important to essay College understand the debate essay legal and regulatory impact. As VoIP continues to a perfect essay Niagara College grow there is a risk of government regulation.
Certain governments are keen on protecting the a critical thinker Holderness position of legacy telecoms incumbents. Niagara! There is no common regulatory standard. The regulatory burden is essay Grier considered high as each country needs to be considered separately. Businesses may need to obtain telecom license from the local regulator and be required to provide emergency call access number portability between traditional public switched telephone networks (“PSTN”) and writing College VoIP services, and net neutrality. If there is federal regulation this would create more competitive interconnections and essay of Wollongong in Dubai will reshape how VoIP is managed. The FCC would enter into the Internet circuit as an official regulator. It’s all about striking the right balance between regulation for consumer protection and freedom for service providers. I do not think regulating VoIP would protect consumers nor would it provide them with a level playing field because new technologies do not develop on a level playing field. Although I do not object to regulation per se, but do not believe it should be done by the states alone. Having state by state regulations make for a messy market, there is the issue of different rules being imposed.
The risk is using the writing a perfect Niagara College mindset of the old telecom world on a new and very different kind of technology.’ PART IV: NETWORK NEUTRALITY. Network neutrality is a growing issue. The basic principle behind network neutrality is that the Internet should remain free of any discrimination or barriers among classes of essay of Wollongong in Dubai, users or of information stored and transmitted on the Internet. This implies no matter whom or where the user is the connection, quality, and the prices will remain equal. Many large corporate interests, especially software and applications providers, from Yahoo! and Amazon to Niagara College eBay and Microsoft have been urging the how to High FCC, Congress and even state legislatures to a perfect essay College adopt laws that codify network neutrality on the Internet.
So why would Internet Service Providers (ISP) like VoIP want to change it? These and write an autobiography Catholic High School other companies want to change the terms of writing, network neutrality to increase large corporate profits and possibly push out smaller competitors. ISP view is that running a network is how to an autobiography Marian High expensive and that you should be charged by the amount of data you use in the same way that your electrical company charges you. The Internet has always been neutral so why would the government bureaucracy think they can manage the Internet. If the writing a perfect essay Internet were regulated by government bureaucracy it would be far less advanced and not as useful as it is today. FCC wants to know how much power they have to regulate ISPs since they regulate the traditional telephone companies.
The FCC would not be able to Holderness use the same tools as they use to regulate ISPs. FCC tried to regulate ISPs and a perfect essay Niagara the court found that the FCC was trying to apply Title II obligations to companies that are regulated under Title I of the Telecommunications Act which is the law that created the FCC and gives it its power. The court did agree with FCC idea of debate in Dubai, network neutrality but did not like the Niagara College way the essay writing School FCC handled it. At this point, the writing Niagara College FCC has the option to essay appeal. They can ask for a rehearing or redefine what an ISP is so that they VoIP would fall into class Title II.
This process is known as reclassification. The basic questions that have been faced by regulators all over Niagara College, the world are about the necessity and the scope of VoIP regulation. The open question remains whether VoIP services should be regulated? Should a light-regulated approach on VoIP services be employed focusing on public interest and consumers benefits? It is my belief that the Commission should end this battle once and for all. Following are the basic principles that regulators should consider to become the national’s regulatory framework adequate to the VoIP reality. First principle, I think VoIP should be classified as a Title I Information Service. I do not find it favorable to subject two services that consumers view as substitutes to two different regulatory regimes. This doesn’t make much sense to me. Second principle, the Internet Protocol nature of VoIP technology means it functions like an information service opposed to a telecommunications service.
Third principle, the regulatory burdens of Title II carry government control in lieu of oversight, mandates, and how to write essay Catholic High compliance. Title II of the writing a perfect Communications Act is highly regulated. A common carrier subject to write essay Marian High School Title II regulation maybe subject to price regulation and writing essay they must interconnect with other carriers at FCC determined rates. The common carrier must also contribute to the universal service fund and be in essay CATS College Canterbury compliance with public safety obligations. Fourth principle, regulators should remove legal and regulatory barriers to the development of VoIP (deregulation). A Perfect Niagara College! Fifth principle consists of no price regulation; VoIP providers should be free to set their own prices. Sixth principle, the whole telecom players should finance universal service ‘ including VoIP service providers. Seventh principle, it is my opinion that state regulation of intrastate telephone service is a thing of the how to write an essay about my life IUBH past. This made sense during an era when customers distinguished between local and long-distance service and when state services were dominated by local monopolies which required regulatory oversight. If states are permitted to regulate new emerging services like they did the old telephone monopoly it would hinder the growth of this new technology, create barriers to writing College entry, and it would delay the benefits of competition in voice service. How To! In summary, I feel they should postpone regulating the writing essay Internet.
Since the Internet is being worldwide every government would need to agree on a perfect Niagara College, some type of writing websites free Norfolk, regulation and that would be difficult to a perfect Niagara College do and I don’t envision that happening. It is impossible to get several countries to School agree on anything. Lastly, I would like to essay College make a comment on the article ‘Who Killed the VoIP Revolution’. Grier School! In my opinion, the writing essay VoIP to PSTN is not dead, it’s alive and kicking, and still being defined. People need phone services but they do not want to pay Plain Old Telephone Service (POTS) prices.
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If you use part of this page in essay your own work, you need to provide a citation, as follows: Essay UK, Essay: VOIP . Available from: http://www.essay.uk.com/essays/information-technology/essay-voip/ [06-10-17]. If you are the original author of this content and no longer wish to have it published on our website then please click on the link below to request removal: 10-05-17 - Image processing 09-05-17 - Integration of Cloud and Internet of Things 03-05-17 - Mobile ad-hoc network 02-05-17 - Technology used in hospitality industry 01-05-17 - The Personal Software ProcessSM (PSPSM) 21-04-17 - Software quality 20-04-17 - Data Warehouse for decision making 19-04-17 - Enhancing food security via a web based system 17-04-17 - Frame relay technology 15-04-17 - Competition and Innovation: A Comparative Study of essay, Telecommunications and Insurance (WIP) We offer professional custom essay writing, dissertation writing and a critical Holderness School coursework writing service.
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Learning Disability Nurse CV Writing Service. As a learning disability nurse, you would work with people of all ages who need assistance with aspects of everyday life. You would provide them with specialist healthcare and would help people by writing a perfect College, teaching them skills and giving them the encouragement and confidence they need to live as independently as they can. Essay University Of Wollongong In Dubai! You may also counsel and advise clients’ families and carers. Your work with clients would often begin with an assessment of their health and social care needs. These are likely to a perfect essay Niagara College be complex and may also be linked to physical disabilities, epilepsy, mental health problems or difficulties with speech, hearing or vision. You would provide support to a critical your clients to meet their individual needs, which would include making sure they had access to writing essay the right health services, treatment or therapy.
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By September 2013, all nursing programmes will be at degree level only. To get on to an approved course, you need: proof of your English and maths skills, good health and good character evidence of recent successful study experience (especially if you have been out of education for some time) You will also need Criminal Records Bureau clearance (a criminal conviction does not automatically exclude you from working within the NHS). For this branch you will also usually need relevant experience, paid or unpaid, of working with people with learning disabilities or care work. Contact the voluntary services coordinator or manager at your local NHS Trust for further advice.
Course providers can also set their own academic entry requirements, which can include: nursing diploma – five GCSEs (A-C) preferably in English, maths and/or a science-based subject nursing degree – usually the same GCSEs as the a perfect essay diploma, plus two or three A levels, possibly including a biological science or equivalent. Some institutions offer Advanced Diplomas in what is narrative writing Learning Disability Nursing. This qualification and the entry requirements for it lie between diploma and writing a perfect Niagara College, degree level. The NMC are raising the minimum level of pre-registration nurse education from diploma to degree. The first degree programmes following the new standards are expected to begin September 2011. The final opportunity to start the nursing diploma will be Spring 2013. From September 2013, students will ONLY be able to qualify as a nurse by studying for a degree. Funding – nursing students starting study in 2011 on the diploma and degree courses attract a non-repayable bursary to essay free Glenlyon Norfolk School cover living expenses.Those starting their studies on an approved nursing course from a perfect essay College, September 2012 will receive a non-means tested grant of ?1,000, an additional means tested bursary of up to importance of writing essay Grier ?4,395 per year (?5,460 for students in London) and essay Niagara College, a reduced rate non-means tested loan.
You could prepare for how to write School a nursing course through a two-year Cadet Scheme or Apprenticeship. Schemes vary between NHS Trusts, but usually combine clinical placements and writing a perfect essay, working towards an NVQ or QCF qualification at Level 3 in Health. Contact your local NHS Trust for details of cadet schemes in your area. If you are a healthcare assistant with an NVQ Level 3 in what essay writing College Health (and support from your employer) you may be able to complete nurse training on a part-time basis by applying for a secondment. You would receive a salary and essay College, once qualified, you may need to work with the NHS Trust that funded you for a minimum period. If you have a first or second class honours degree in a health or nursing related subject, you could qualify as a nurse by taking an debate University of Wollongong, accelerated programme for graduates. As a nurse trained outside the writing essay UK and EEA, you may need to complete the Overseas Nurses Programme (ONP) before you begin work. Occasionally, EEA trained nurses may also be required to an essay of Business & Management take an aptitude test (or similar) in order to prove professional competence. Once you are on a nurse training programme, you will divide your time between university and supervised placements in local hospitals and writing a perfect essay, the community. Courses usually take three years full-time to complete. During the how to about IUBH & Management first year you will follow the Common Foundation Programme, which includes:
an introduction to the four branches of nursing and Niagara, maternity care developing observational, communication and caring skills studying anatomy, physiology, psychology, sociology, social policy learning core practical caring skills. For the remaining two years you will specialise in the learning disability branch and work in essay websites Norfolk School relevant clinical and essay, community settings. As a qualified nurse you must renew your professional registration with the NMC every three years. To re-register you need to have worked a minimum of 450 hours and completed at least 5 study days to being thinker support professional development every three years. Writing A Perfect Niagara College! Check with the NMC for details. If you are a former registered nurse wishing to return to being a critical thinker the profession, you can take a return-to-practice course. the ability to relate well to people of all ages and backgrounds maturity, patience, compassion and sensitivity excellent communication and listening skills the ability to teach and encourage clients to develop their skills the ability to gain the trust of clients and writing a perfect, their families physical and mental stamina the ability to stay calm and in control in difficult situations a genuine desire to help people assertiveness with the ability to represent a client’s interests self awareness, resourcefulness and emotional resilience a flexible approach to work the ability to work as part of Marian Catholic High a team the a perfect essay Niagara ability to recognise signs of physical or emotional problems. You will find most jobs within the NHS.
You could also work within the private sector, the prison service, and local authority social services. With experience, you could specialise in an area such as sensory disability, or go on to lead of team in a residential setting or manage a learning disability unit. You may also progress into other management roles, such as community matron or director of School nursing. You could go on to train in another branch of nursing by completing a ‘second registration’ course (these take around one year and you will usually need evidence of recent study and financial support from your employer). Writing A Perfect Essay Niagara College! You could also train as a health visitor. The health sector is represented by Skills for Health Sector Skills Council, which comprises three sub?sectors: National Health Service (NHS) Independent Healthcare Sector (such as private and charitable healthcare providers) Third Sector (healthcare) (such as small local community and write an autobiography School, voluntary groups, registered charities, foundations, trusts, social enterprises and co?operatives) The health sector is made up of hospitals, doctors’ surgeries, dental practices, the ambulance service, nursing homes, residential care homes, complementary medicine and a huge range of other health related activities, from sight tests in opticians to research in medical laboratories.
Most people in the health sector work in the publicly funded National Health Service (NHS), which includes: primary care (organisations which the public goes to first) – Doctors/General Practitioners (GPs), NHS Walk in a perfect essay Centres, NHS Direct, Out of Hours Emergency Care secondary care (organisations which the public are referred onto) – Ambulance Trusts, NHS Trusts/hospitals, NHS Foundation Trusts/hospitals, Mental Health Trusts, Care Trusts (provide joint health and social care activities) NHS policy in how to an essay about School of Business & Management England is directed from the centre by the Department of writing a perfect essay Niagara College Health. Websites Norfolk School! Local organisations, known as Primary Care Trusts (PCTs), are in writing a perfect essay charge of providing and commissioning services, controlling the importance of writing essay Grier School majority of the budget. PCTs are overseen by 10 regional organisations called Strategic Health Authorities (SHAs). The independent sector includes companies and charities that offer hospital and specialist services usually after referral from a doctor.
Operations and other work are carried out in private hospitals, independent treatment centres, mental health units and hospices. The health sector is the largest employer in the UK, representing 5.5% of the working age population of the UK and Niagara, 7.3% of the working age population that are currently in employment. It is estimated that the sector employs over 2 million people, including: over 1.5 million people in the NHS (72%) over how to Marian Catholic, 0.5 million people in the Independent Healthcare sector (26%) almost 40,000 in the voluntary sector (2%) 56% of the workforce has a higher education qualification (or equivalent). The age profile for the sector shows an older than average workforce, which is due in part to the fact that it takes some professions a long time to train and can mean that people enter the sector later. There is a varied list of jobs in the sector ranging from a diverse number of writing a perfect essay Niagara clinical roles, to what writing CATS College Canterbury support and infrastructure staff, for instance: Allied Health Professionals (AHPs); Ambulance Staff; Dental Staff; Doctors/Medical staff; Nursing staff; Midwifery Staff; Healthcare Scientists; Health Informatics Staff; Management; Wider Healthcare Team; Complementary Therapists. High proportions of the health sector workforce are located in: The health sector employs 131,515 people, which accounts for 7% of all employment in a perfect Niagara the region. The East Midlands employs 8% of the total health sector workforce for England. The private sector accounts for 29% of all employment across the sector or 41,200 employees.
Between 2007 and 2017, the write essay High total requirement for workforce will be approximately 133,000 people. Writing! This is the total of the predicted expansion plus replacement demand. The health sector employs 164,720 people, which accounts for 7% of all employment in the region. Is Narrative College! The East of England employs 9.8 % of the total health sector workforce for England. The private sector accounts for 30% of all employment across the sector or 52,300 employees. Vacancies in the health and social work sector account for 14% of writing a perfect Niagara College all industry vacancies. Between 2007 and 2017, the total requirement for workforce will be approximately 103,000 people. This is the total of the predicted expansion plus replacement demand. The health sector employs over 249,524 people, which accounts for how to about my life School 6% of all the employment in the region. London employs 15% of the total health sector workforce for England. The private sector accounts for 33% of all employment across the sector or 78,500 employees.
Vacancies in health and social work account for 12% of all industry vacancies. Between 2007 and essay Niagara, 2017, the total requirement for workforce will be approximately 146,000 people. This is the total of the an essay about my life IUBH of Business predicted expansion plus replacement demand. The health sector employs 89,201 people, which accounts for 8.7% of all employment in a perfect essay the region. The North East employs 5.3 % of the essay websites Norfolk School total health sector workforce for England. The private sector accounts for 25% of all employment across the writing College sector or 23,800 employees.
Vacancies in the health and social work sector account for 12% of all industry vacancies. Between 2007 and 2017, the total requirement for workforce will be almost 46,000 people. This is the total of the predicted expansion plus replacement demand. The health sector employs 251,960 people, which accounts for 8% of all employment in the region. Essay Writing! The North West employs 15% of the writing a perfect essay total health sector workforce for writing CATS Canterbury England. The private sector accounts for 23.5% of a perfect essay all employment across the sector or 59,200 employees. Vacancies in the health and social work account for 11% of debate essay of Wollongong in Dubai all industry vacancies. Between 2007 and 2017, the writing a perfect essay total requirement for School workforce will be approximately 133,000 people. This is the total of the predicted expansion plus replacement demand. The health sector employs 264,071 people, which accounts for 7.1% of all employment in the region. The South East employs 15.7% of the total health sector workforce for England.
The private sector accounts for 23.5% of all employment across the sector or 59,200 employees. Vacancies in the health and social work sector account for 12% of writing a perfect College all Industry vacancies. Between 2007 and 2017, the how to write an essay IUBH School total requirement for workforce will be approximately 164,000 people. This is the writing a perfect essay Niagara College total of the predicted expansion plus replacement demand. The health sector employs 182,187 people, which accounts for of writing Grier School 8.2% of all employment in the region. The South West employs 10.8 % of the total health sector workforce for England. The private sector accounts for 30% of all employment across the sector or 60,700 employees. Vacancies in the health and writing Niagara College, social work sector account for how to write IUBH of Business 12% of all Industry vacancies.
Between 2007 and 2017, the Niagara College total requirement for workforce will be approximately 105,000 people. This is the total of the predicted expansion plus replacement demand. The health sector employs 168,746 people, which accounts for 7.2% of all employment in the region. The West Midlands employs 10% of the total health sector workforce for essay England. The private sector accounts for 25% of all employment across the writing College sector or 43,000 employees. Vacancies in the health and social work sector account for Grier 9% of all industry vacancies.
Between 2007 and 2017, the writing a perfect essay total requirement for workforce will be approximately 108,000 people. This is the websites Glenlyon Norfolk School total of the predicted expansion plus replacement demand. Yorkshire and the Humber. The health sector employs 182,848 people, which accounts for 8.2% of all employment in the region. Yorkshire and the Humber employ 10.9 % of the total health sector workforce for writing a perfect essay England. Importance Of Writing Essay Grier School! The private sector accounts for 24% of the total health care workforce or 42,000 employees. Vacancies in health and social work account for 11% of all industry vacancies.
Between 2007 and 2017, the total requirement for workforce will be approximately 97,000 people. This is the total of the a perfect Niagara predicted expansion plus replacement demand. The health sector employs 61,300 people. Northern Ireland employs 3% of the total health sector workforce. 81% of the workforce is female. 26% of the write essay workforce is aged 35?44 years. 96% of the a perfect Niagara College workforce is how to write essay Marian Catholic, white. Writing A Perfect Essay! 10% of the workforce reports a disability. 48% of the how to write an essay my life of Business workforce is in Associate Professional and Technical occupations. 23% of organisations in the health and social work sector report vacancies.
The health sector employs 201,500 people. Scotland employs 10% of the total health sector workforce. 78% of the workforce is female. 30% of the workforce is aged 45?54 years. 95% of the writing essay College workforce is white.
14% of the workforce reports a disability. 39% of the how to write an autobiography Marian Catholic workforce is in a perfect essay College Associate Professional and Technical occupations. 23% of organisations in the health and social work sector report vacancies. The health sector employs 114,900 people. Wales employs 6% of the total health sector workforce. 74% of the workforce is female. 34% of the College Canterbury workforce is aged 45?54 years. Writing Niagara! 94% of the workforce is white. 18% of the workforce reports a disability. 40% of the workforce is in University Associate Professional and Technical occupations.
27% of organisations in the health and social work sector report vacancies.