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Buzz words (key words) are definitely the secret and one must learn this and use the job description in the posting and customize the resume accordingly or else be among the roughly 75% that are automatically not reviewed and receive the need writing essay Hebron Academy proverbial computerized canned rejection letter from a “do not reply” to email address! Definitely, if your are in the design and arts profession, ATS is surely the scholarship Lancing College Antichrist! Preach!! I 1000% get what you’re saying!! I’ve been in the advertising industry for 25 years, 13 years on staff, and the last 12 years as a freelancer. How in the world do you include 12 years of significant freelance work with several different clients on essay writing service College a multitude of different accounts with all kinds of how to write College varying calendar timing through an how to write an essay of Business ATS and expect it to spit out anything resembling a solid, successful overall career?? Despite the fact that so many highly qualified candidates are finding the ATS to be their ultimate challenge in scholarship Lancing College, the job search, the “sheeple” continue to just follow the guidelines to gaming the need help Academy system via keyword dumping rather than avoiding companies who rely on filtering human beings through their ATS. Lancing College! Unfortunately for the likes of you and how to write a successful essay University, me, we don’t really have the luxury to NOT play along at least a little bit or get utterly left behind, but I agree completely that if more people just stop playing along, companies will finally get exactly what you said: it’s costing them everything! That’s easy to how to write Lancing say if you have a job. But if you are unemployed, you have little choice.
This software should be outlawed. Argumentative Subjects (The! No wonder the nitwits in HR claim they ‘can’t find qualified people’, their ATS screened them out how to write scholarship essay College, beforehand. Woww. Having the right information at the tip of your finger can actually ease the endless pain of job seeking and resume submission without consideration. Argumentative TASIS! Thanks, your article is encompassing and indeed rich. Keep it up.
Glad we could help! Thanks for how to scholarship College, you comment. While I found this article very helpful as a job seeker, it is a sad commentary on the state of corporate hiring today. We are being dehumanized and reduced to School automatons in the new world order system. This article is so very. useful. It really helped me a lot to understand what I was doing wrong.
Just few. questions: 1) do you advise to write essay Lancing mold my resume to match every single job I am. applying to? 2) In situations where one does not possess all of the required. skills of a job posting, but one knows it will not take long to acquire them; how. do you suggest one should handle such situation? Ignore the article writing Louisiana job post, and how to essay, move. to the next one?
Any advice is greatly appreciated. Yes, your resume should always be tailored to the specific job post. Essay Hebron Academy! As far as skills go, check out this page for how to write Lancing, more advice: https://resumegenius.com/resume/skills-section-writing-guide. Thanks for you comment. Dude seriously?? and here I thought even after knowing whatever was the demand of our beloved employer I wasn’t getting hired because I had no skill. On top of that I didn’t even know ATS existed, I always thought living human beings reject me :p. Bravo…. and lamentation.
In these days of big data, it’s laughable that job matching is Louisiana University still such an how to write scholarship essay College outrageously resource wasting game of hide and seek. Resumes and job postings are still crafted as for a single pieces of paper formatted to communicate all pertinent information in writing a descriptive University Florida, the 10 or so seconds of attention that conventional wisdom says they may receive. Write Scholarship College! While an an essay about IUBH School of Business & Management ATS attempts to tweak that Cretaceous period bottleneck, clearly there’s something missing. I’m considering starting a company that would provide the mirror analog of an ATS to job seekers for free, with the scholarship essay ultimate goal of steering development of the cooperative, common have/need data platform that would evolve once the inevitable war between the two systems runs its course (I’d rather just skip to the common platform, but sometimes you’ve got to kick the mule). Who’s with me? How should I handle the resume I post on article job boards (e.g. Monster, Dice)?
That resume can’t be tailored to a specific job description. Should I use keywords common to many of the job descriptions for my target position? And then use a customized resume when I apply for write scholarship Lancing, a specific job? BINGO! Sounds like you know what you’re doing. Best of luck! Thanks for your help and for writing Louisiana State, the great article. Cheers! Thanks for the comment! You bring up a good point — it’s important to create a resume that both gets through the ATS and how to essay College, appeals to hiring managers once it lands in their hands. Share Beat the Applicant Tracking Systems (ATS): How to Survive Resume Reading Robots
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In a parallel story, I got mad at my husband and stormed off, wondering whether or not a church on a hill was Catholic, and angry that he had made me walk there if he didn’t want to know. Neither of us would let the issue go. I wandered by the ocean long enough to scholarship essay service Wrekin make myself abysmally sad. I stayed gone long enough to get really mad. I came home and fell asleep on the bathroom floor. When I awoke, I couldn’t find my husband.
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I keep my Facebook friends close as we confirm each other’s beliefs, sarcastically commenting, “But her emails!” on every new political spectacle. We don’t even have to explain. But the braided form expands the how to write conversation, presses upon the hard lines of subjects (The, ideology, stretches the choices beyond right or left, one or the other. Metaphor helps challenge the stultified pathways of our neural networks and test the elasticity of thought. Two ideas. One time.
The brain resists new ways of thinking, but resistance is an important political tool. Resistance is the metaphor that will rule all other metaphors. I tend to write in braided essay form, but in a recent essay about wolves, I took it to a different level. In this essay, I didn’t make so many explicit transitions. Instead, I used the research itself to how to scholarship essay catapult the essay’s questioning. I found “62 Interesting Facts about Wolves” using Google and considered how each one was really a fact about humans. If so many of the facts involve human-and-wolf interaction, can we imagine the wolf as a separate existence-worthy species? Or are wolves only a reflection of need help writing Hebron, human fears, violent capacities, love of wilderness, ability to adapt? Should humans save them to write scholarship essay College save these elements of ourselves, or does wolf existence matter for Louisiana University, reasons beyond its relationship to the human? If the essay is a chalkboard onto which we scrape our ontological questions, then this essay fits right in.
Who are wolves? Are humans wolves? Can facts exist without humans? If the wolf changes, does the very being of wolf change? As climate change and habitat loss force the how to scholarship essay Lancing College wolf to breed with the coyote, do we lose not only a species, or even two species, but also a metaphor for an essay about School of Business & Management, how we understand ourselves? How is the wolf and human already a braided idea? If one is write scholarship Lancing College, being eradicated, is the other? Or is it just the idea of the other that is eradicated? Is braided form a broken form? Perhaps. If so, perhaps it is the form that best represents a broken self and a broken world.
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The personal story asks the reader to hear you say, Isn’t this what it’s like to be human? The research-based story says, See how being human is like being everything else in the world? Strange and wondrous. Argumentative Subjects (The American! Wild and mutable. The job of the creative nonfiction writer is to say, Here I am world, and here is the world, and scholarship essay Lancing out of this oxymoronic writing, we are here to make each other. Nicole Walker is the author of how to an essay IUBH School, two forthcoming books, Sustainability: A Love Story and Microcosmology. Her previous books include Egg. read more. Thanks for putting a name to a style of writing that I seem to scholarship Lancing naturally fall into.
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Picturing the Personal Essay: A Visual Guide. A design professor from Denmark once drew for me a picture of the creative process, which had been the subject of his doctoral dissertation. read more. This issue is about how to keep uppersonally, politically, scientificallywith our rapidly changing world. In these essays. read more.
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CONSTRAINTS ON THE EXPANSION OF THE GLOBAL FOOD SUPPLY. by Henery W Kindall and David Pimentel, from Ambio Vol. 23 No. Scholarship Essay College? 3, May 1994. The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences. We examine whether and how global food production may be increased to provide for a world population expected to double by about 2050. Increasing current food production more than proportional to population growth is required so as to provide most humans with an adequate diet. We examine the possible expansion of food supplies to the year 2050, the inventory of presently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. Serious degradation and write an essay my life of Business, loss of the world's arable land is taking place and write scholarship essay College, expansion of irrigation, vital for food production, is becoming more costly and difficult.
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It would be necessary to increase current levels of food production more than proportional to how to College, population growth so as to provide most humans with an how to about my life School of Business, adequate diet. There are a number of actions that may be taken to help this food expansion, but there are also a number of constraints that make expansion of food output difficult. How To Scholarship Essay College? In this paper we examine the expansion of per capita food supplies required in the light of the current range of expectations of how to essay University (INTO), population growth, the inventory of currently utilized and potentially available arable land, rates of land degradation, and the limitations of water and biological resources. We make assessments of the prospects of achieving the needed growth of the global food supply to the year 2050, when the world's population is Lancing College projected to a descriptive about of Central Florida, have about doubled. Write Scholarship? We examine scenarios of food supply and demand that point to looming shortages. We do not analyze the problems of providing energy, capital, and other needs to support increasing numbers of need help essay Academy, people. Numbers and Growth. The world's population grew slowly over much of the essay Lancing historic past; it was not until after 1900 that growth accelerated (1). Need Help Essay Academy? The 1992 population was 5.5 billion. World population is now increasing at how to write College, about 1.7% yr, corresponding to a doubling time of 40 years. Recently, a gradual decrease in the fertility rate has slowed in a number of countries (2, 3), most notably in China and India (4), which has led to upward revisions in population forecasts.
The world population will grow by just under 1 billion people during the decade of the write an essay IUBH School & Management 1990s. Figure 1 shows three such projections for world population (5). How To Write Scholarship Essay Lancing College? The United Nations has concluded that if the world's fertility rate were to fall to replacement levels during the period 1990-1995 and an essay my life IUBH School of Business, remained there, the world population would reach 7.8 billion in write scholarship essay Lancing College 2050. This continuing rise is the consequence of having an age distribution presently heavily weighted toward young people. The populations in many developing countries would double in this case. Write An Essay IUBH? A population of 7.8 billion, under this implausible assumption, is only slightly less than the low projection for that year, which thus appears unrealistic. For the purposes of how to write essay, this paper we will employ the medium fertility estimate. About My Life Of Business? The 2050 world population in this scenario is write College expected to be 10 billion.
Food: History and Supply. In the early 1960s, most nations were self-sufficient in food; now only a few are. In the essay writing Wrekin period 1950-1984, the introduction of scholarship Lancing, high-yield crops and energy intensive agriculture ushered in the Green Revolution, leading to increased crop production. World grain output expanded by a factor of 2.6 in this period (6, 7) increasing linearly, within the fluctuations. Except for article Louisiana parts of Africa, production exceeded population growth throughout the world. Per capita production has now slowed (8) and appears to be declining. Rising growth of population, as shown in Figure 1, and a linearly increasing food production (Figure 2) have persisted over the recent 40 years. Such circumstances have been of concern since Thomas R. Malthus first called attention, in 1798, to the consequences of their continuation; decreasing per capita food and scholarship Lancing College, great human suffering (9). The success of the Green Revolution lay primarily in its increased use of fossil energy for fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation to raise crops as well as in improved seed. It greatly increased the energy-intensiveness of agricultural production, in some cases by 100 fold or more. Plant breeding was principally aimed at designing plants that could tolerate high levels of fertilizer use and improving the harvest index (10).
The Green Revolution was technologically suited to a descriptive a place University of Central Florida, special circumstances: relatively level land with adequate water for irrigation and how to essay, fertilizer, and in nations that could acquire the other needed resources. The Revolution has been implemented in a manner that has not proved to be environmentally sustainable. The technology has enhanced soil erosion, polluted groundwater and surface-water resources, and increased pesticide use has caused serious public health and environmental problems (11-13). Opportunities exist to reduce these negative environmental and need Hebron Academy, social impacts. Research is underway at most of the International Crop Research Centers to make the Revolution more environmentally and socially sustainable.
Since 1980, there has been some improvement in world crop yields with the how to write essay rate of increase in total grain production declining slightly. Grain production has increased roughly linearly (14) since the early 1950s. World area planted to grain is down 8% since 1981 (15). However, there are a number of important obstacles to a large, further expansion of the energy intensive practices that underlay the scholarship essay service expansion based on the Green Revolution, including economics, technology adoption, and environmental degradation. At the present time, 2 of 183 nations are major exporters of grain. the United States and Canada. Food: Availability and Consumption. For most of the world's population, grain is the primary source of nutrition and may become more so in years ahead. Scholarship College? It is thus a useful measure in estimating future food needs. The per capita consumption of foods and feed grains supplied per how to a successful of Gloucestershire year is shown in how to scholarship essay Lancing Table 1. Data for China and the USA are included to show a range in these distributions.
Per capita grain production in Africa is down 12% since 1981 and down 22% since 1967 (15). Some 20 years ago, Africa produced food equal to what it consumed; today it produces only 80% of what it consumes (16). Food from marine sources now provide between 1% and 2% of the world's supply of food (17, 18) and the amount, including the contribution from aquaculture, is unlikely to double within the next few decades (John Ryther pers. comm.). In line with recent studies (19, 20), we estimate that with the world population at 5.5 billion, food production is adequate to feed 7 billion people a vegetarian diet, with ideal distribution and no grain fed to livestock. Yet possibly as many as two billion people are now living in poverty (V. Abernathy, pers. comm.), and over I billion in utter poverty live with hunger (7, 19-23). Essay About A Place University Of Central Florida? Inadequate distribution of food is a substantial contributing factor to this current situation. It is clear from the above review that current food supplies, with present patterns of distribution and consumption, appear insufficient to provide satisfactory diets to all, although a recent FAO report indicates that chronic undernutrition in developing countries has improved somewhat (24).
It is generally agreed that, among a number of important global changes, economic and how to scholarship, social well-being must improve for argumentative TASIS (The that large fraction of the world's peoples now in poverty. This includes more and better food. How To Lancing? A doubling of the population would necessitate the equivalent of a tripling, or more, of our current food supply to ensure that the undernourished were no longer at risk and to bring population growth stabilization within reach in humane ways, without widespread hunger and deprivation. Improved nutrition may be achieved by essay writing Wrekin dietary shifts and improved distribution as well as by an increased quantity of food, as discussed later in this paper. Supply: The world's land devoted to food production and in write Lancing forest and savanna is shown in Table 2. Less than one half of the world's land area is suitable for agriculture, including grazing; total arable (crop) land, in use and potential, is estimated to how to write my life IUBH School, comprise about 3000 million ha (25). However, nearly all of the world's productive land, flat and write, with water, is a successful University of Gloucestershire (INTO) already exploited.
Most of the unexploited land is either too steep, too wet, too dry, or too cold for agriculture (26). There are difficulties in finding new land that could be exploited for how to scholarship essay College agricultural production. Expansion of cropland would have to writing a descriptive essay of Central, come at the expense of forest and rangeland, much of which is essential in its present uses. In Asia, for example, nearly 80% of potentially arable land is now under cultivation (7, 27). In the 1970s, there was a net annual gain in world cropland of nearly 0.7%. The rate of gain has slowed and, in 1990, the net annual gain was about 0.35% yr, largely as a result of deforestation. As much as 70-80% of ongoing deforestation, both tropical and write scholarship essay, temperate, is associated with the spread of agriculture. For these reasons we estimate that the world's arable land could be expanded at most by 500 million ha, or a net expansion of roughly one-third.
However the productivity of this new land would be much below present levels in land now being cropped. At the present time humans either use, coopt or destroy 40% of the estimated 100 billion tons of organic matter produced annually by the terrestrial ecosystem (28). Quality and how to about my life School of Business, Degradation: The loss of productive soil has occurred as long as crops have been cultivated. Lal and Pierce (29) in stating this, report that land degradation has now become a major threat to the sustainability of world food supply. This loss arises from soil erosion, salinization, waterlogging, and urbanization with its associated highway and road construction.
Nutrient depletion, overcultivation, overgrazing, acidification, and soil compaction contribute as well. Many of these processes are caused or are aggravated by poor agricultural management practices. Taken together or in various combinations, these factors decrease the productivity of the soil and substantially reduce annual crop yields (30-32), and, more important, will reduce crop productivity for essay College the long term (33). Almost all arable land that is currently in scholarship essay writing crop production, especially marginal land, is highly susceptible to degradation. We estimate that about one quarter of this land should not be in essay College production (34).
This is depressing food production, as well as requiring increased fossil energy inputs of fertilizers, pesticides, and irrigation in an effort to help writing Academy, offset degradation. Soil erosion, a problem throughout the world, is the how to write essay Lancing single most serious cause of degradation of arable land (35-37), owing to its adverse effect on crop productivity. The major cause is poor agricultural practices that leave the soil without vegetative cover to protect it against water and wind erosion. Soil loss by erosion is extremely serious because it takes from 200 to essay College, 1000 years, averaging about 500 years, to how to write scholarship, form 2.5 cm (1 inch) of topsoil (38) under normal agricultural conditions (39-43). Throughout the world current soil losses range from about 20 to Louisiana State University, 300 t ha yr, with substantial amounts of nitrogen and how to write scholarship essay College, other vital nutrients also lost (44). Topsoil is being lost at 16 to 300 times faster than it can be replaced (36). Worldwide soil erosion has caused farmers to abandon about 430 million ha of arable land during the last 40 years, an area equivalent to about one-third of all present cropland (6, 7). Each year at least 10 million ha are lost to land degradation that includes the spread of urbanization (45). For example, Tolba (46) reported that the rate of College, soil loss in Africa has increased 20-fold during the past 30 years.
The estimated rate of world soil erosion in excess of new soil production is 23 billion t yr, or about 0.7% loss of the world's soil inventory each year (47; Table 3). The continuing application of fertilizers (48) has so far masked much of the deterioration and loss of productivity from this process, so that world cropland yield is how to Lancing remaining roughly constant. This appears likely to continue in the next decades. Continued erosion at (The School, the current rate will result in the loss of over 30% of the global soil inventory by the year 2050, a truly severe damage and loss, obviously unsustainable over the long run. Erosion reduces the availability of water (31), as well as nutrients to growing plants and diminishes organic matter and soil biota (29, 49). Reduction of the water available to growing plants is the most harmful effect of erosion.
Soil degradation is scholarship essay College affecting 15% of the earth's cropland area (29). In developing countries, the scholarship essay writing service Wrekin College degradation of soil is growing worse owing to increased burning of crop residues and dung for fuel. This reduces soil nutrients (50, 51) and quickly intensifies soil erosion. Water: Resources and Irrigation. Supply and Use: Water is the major limiting factor for world agricultural production. Crops require and transpire massive amounts of water. For example, a corn crop that produces about 7000 kg ha of how to write scholarship essay Lancing College, grain will take up and transpire about 4.2 million L ha of water during its growing season (52). To supply this much water to the crop, assuming no use of irrigation, not only article Louisiana, must 10 million liters (1000 mm) of rain fall per ha, but it must be reasonably evenly distributed during the year and especially during the growing season. Irrigation: irrigation is vital to global food production: About 16% of the world's cropland is under irrigation. This area contributes about one-third of crop production, yielding about 2 1/2 times as much per ha as nonirrigated land.
In arid lands crops must be irrigated and write scholarship essay College, this requires large quantities of water and energy (53). For example, the production of 1 kg of the following food and fiber products requires: 1400 liters of essay writing, irrigation water for corn; 4700 liters for rice, and 17 000 liters for cotton (54). About 70% of the fresh water used by humans is expended for irrigation (55). Much of the world's irrigated land is being damaged by salinization and waterlogging from Lancing College, improper irrigation techniques (56). Writing Academy? It is sufficiently severe over 10% of the area to suppress crop yields (57). This damage, together with reduced irrigation development and population growth, has led, since 1978, to declining world irrigated area per capita (58, 59). Serious salinization problems already exist in India, Pakistan, Egypt, Mexico, Australia. and the United States. Because salt levels are naturally high in these regions, the problem of salt build-up is Lancing particularly severe. Recent research puts the current loss of world farmland due to salinization alone at 1.5 million ha yr (60) or almost 1 % yr, a loss presently being more than made up by expansion of irrigation. Essay Writing Wrekin College? If the damage continues, nearly 30% of the world's presently irrigated acreage will be lost by 2025 and nearly 50% lost by how to scholarship essay Lancing College 2050, losses increasingly difficult to make up. Another damaging side effect of irrigation is the Academy pollution of river and how to scholarship College, stream waters by the addition of salts.
Water Shortages: Pressures from growing populations have strained water resources in many areas of the world (59). Worldwide, 214 river or lake basins, containing 40% of the world's population, now compete for water (55, 61). In many areas of the world, irrigation water is drawn from fossil aquifers, underground water resources, at rates much in excess of the natural recharge rates. The average recharge rate for the world's aquifers is 0.007% yr (62). As the aquifers' water levels decline, they become too costly to pump or they become exhausted, forcing abandonment of the irrigated land (55). Africa and College, several countries in write scholarship the Middle East, especially Israel and Jordan, as well as other countries, are depleting fossil groundwater resources. China has severe agricultural problems (13). Need Writing Essay? In China, ground water levels are falling as much as 1 m yr in major wheat and corn growing regions of the how to write scholarship essay College north China Plain (64). Tianjin, China, reports a drop in ground water levels of 4.4 m yr (58, 59), while in southern India, groundwater levels are falling 2.5 to 3 m yr; in the Gujarat aquifer depletion has induced salt contamination (6, 7). The prospect for future expansion of irrigation to increase food supplies, worldwide and in the US, is not encouraging because per capita irrigated land has declined about write an essay about IUBH & Management 6% since 1978 (57). Greatly expanded irrigation is a difficult, and probably unsustainable solution to the need for expansion of agriculture output (59) because of the rapidly accelerating costs of how to College, irrigation (57).
The continuing emission of a number of gases into the atmosphere from human activities, including chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), methane, and, most important, carbon dioxide, is now thought likely to alter the global climate in the years ahead, a consequence arising from the greenhouse effect (65, 66). Worldwide changes in rainfall distribution are expected, including drying of some continental interiors as well as possible increases in climatic variability. Increased variability in temperature and rainfall can, in many circumstances, be damaging to agricultural productivity. There are expected to be CO2-induced effects on productivity and growth of plants, including crops and weeds, and collateral effects on plant pathogens and insect pests. There may be decline or loss of help writing, ecosystems that are unable to accommodate a rapid climate change. The major impact will be caused by changes in rainfall and water availability to crops. Most crops can tolerate the higher temperatures projected from greenhouse-induced climate change. The detailed consequences are difficult to how to write essay, predict, in part because the expected global average temperature rise and changes in weather patterns have substantial uncertainties. The temperature rise expected from a doubling of the atmospheric CO2 level#151;which, in the absence of carbon emission controls, will occur a decade or so before the year 2100#151;is unlikely to lie outside the range 1.5- to 4.5-C (67). If the scholarship essay writing service Wrekin rise were only 2-C (a degree of warming not experienced in the last 8000 years), there could still be pronounced adverse effects (68).
The 1988 US experience is enlightening. It was the hottest year on record to that time which, accompanied by a mid-continent drought, resulted in a 30% decrease in grain yield, dropping US production below consumption for the first time in some 300 years. Similarly, Canadian production dropped about how to scholarship College 37% (69). Laboratory studies under favorable conditions indicate that enhanced CO2 levels can improve growth rates and water utilization of crops significantly (70). Under field conditions, the estimated increase in yields are projected to be only one-quarter to one-third of need Academy, that observed in the controlled greenhouse conditions without taking into consideration other deleterious consequences of climate change that also may be present and yields may, in how to fact not improve at all (71).
Ground-level ultraviolet enhancement arising from O3 loss in subjects (The American the upper atmosphere from the anthropogenic emission of chlorofluorocarbons can affect natural systems' productivity, alter pest balances, as well as affect the health of humans and surface and marine animals. The current ozone loss, as well as its seasonal variation, over equatorial and mid-latitude regions is not yet well known but is how to scholarship essay College expected to increase, perhaps greatly (72). The US Environmental Protection Agency reported in April 1991, a winter-spring O3 column density depletion of 4.5-5% in mid-latitudes. How To Write Essay University? More recently, there is evidence of essay, a slow but steady ozone depletion over most of the globe; between 40- and 50-N the decline is as great as 8% per decade (73, 74). Each percent decrease in O3 results in about a 3% increase in ground-level ultraviolet intensity. How To Write About My Life School Of Business & Management? Even if the O3 depleting chemical releases were halted now, O3 depletion would continue to increase for decades, with effects lasting a century or more (M. Write Scholarship Essay? McElroy pers. How To Essay University? comm.).
Increased ozone levels may already have decreased phytoplankton yields in the Antarctic ocean (75). Plant responses to ultraviolet radiation include reduced leaf size, stunted growth, poor seed quality, and increased susceptibility to weeds, disease, and pests. Of some 200 plant species studied, two thirds show sensitivity to ozone damage (76). Write Scholarship College? A 25% O3 depletion is expected to reduce yields of soybean, one of civilization's staple crops, 20% (77). Red Hard disease infection rates in wheat increased from 9% to 20% when experimental ozone loss increased from 8% to 16% above ambient levels (78). Clearly, the potential exists for a significant decrease in crop yields in the period to 2050 from enhanced surface ultraviolet levels. Adjusting to modifications of global climate or to altered growing conditions. caused by greenhouse gases or from enhanced ultraviolet, might stress management of Wrekin College, agricultural systems greatly, especially if wholly new crops, and new procedures had to be developed for large areas of the world. Important uncertainties in the magnitudes of the effects expected may persist for write essay Lancing College a decade or so. Currently ruminant livestock like cattle and sheep, graze about half of the earth's total land area (79).
In addition, about one-quarter of world cropland is devoted to producing grains and other feed for livestock. About 38% of the world's grain production is now fed to livestock (79). In the United States, for example, this amounts about 135 million tons yr of grain, of a total production of 312 million tons yr, sufficient to feed a population of 400 million on a vegetarian diet. If humans, especially in developed countries, moved toward more vegetable protein diets rather than their present diets, which are high in need help writing essay animal protein foods, a substantial amount of grain would become available for direct human consumption. There are numerous ways by which cropland productivity may be raised that do not induce injury over the long term, that is, are sustainable (26, 80-82). If these technologies were put into common use in agriculture, some of the negative impacts of degradation in scholarship Lancing College the agro-ecosystem could be reduced and the yields of many crops increased. These technologies include: Energy-Intensive Farming.
While continuation of the rapid increases in yields of the University of Gloucestershire Green Revolution is no longer possible in many regions of the world, increased crop yields are possible by write scholarship College increasing the use of fertilizers and pesticides in some developing countries in Africa, Latin America, and Asia (83). However, recent reports indicate a possible problem of declining yields in the rice-wheat systems in the high production areas of South Asia (J. TASIS American School In Switzerland)? M. Duxbury pers. comm.) Livestock Management and Fertilizer Sources: Livestock serve two important functions in how to write essay College agriculture and food production. First, ruminant livestock convert grass and shrub forages, which are unsuitable for subjects American human food, into milk, blood, and meat for use by humans. They also produce enormous amounts of manure useful for write essay crop production. Soil and Water Conservation: The high rate of soil erosion now typical of world agricultural land emphasizes the urgency of stemming this loss, which in itself is probably the need help essay Academy most threatening to how to scholarship, sustained levels of how to an essay School, food production. Improved conservation of water can enhance rainfed and irrigated crop yields, as discussed below. Crop Varieties and Genetic Engineering: The application of how to, biotechnology to alter certain crop characteristics is expected to increase yields for some crops, such as developing new crop varieties with better harvest index and crops that have improved resistance to insect and plant pathogen attack. Maintaining Biodiversity: Conserving biodiversity of plant and animal species is article State University essential to scholarship essay College, maintaining a productive and attractive environment for agriculture and other human activities. TASIS School? Greater effort is how to essay Lancing College also needed to conserve the genetic diversity that exists in crops worldwide.
This diversity has proven extremely valuable in improving crop productivity and a descriptive essay about University of Central Florida, will continue to how to, do so in future. Improved Pest Control: Because insects, diseases, and weeds destroy about argumentative TASIS American School 35% of potential preharvest crop production in the world (84), the implementation of scholarship essay Lancing College, appropriate technologies to reduce pest and help essay, disease losses would substantially increase crop yields and write essay Lancing, food supplies. Irrigation: Irrigation can be used successfully to increase yields as noted earlier, but only if abundant water and energy resources are available. The problems facing irrigation suggest that its worldwide expansion will be limited (57). Owing to developing shortages of water, improved irrigation practices that lead to increased water in plant's root zones are urgently needed. A number of difficulties in expanding food supplies have been touched on above. Others are presented below: There is a need to essay Wrekin College, decrease global fossil-fuel use and to halt deforestation, in order to lessen carbon emissions to the atmosphere (85).
These steps are in direct competition with the how to write essay Lancing need to provide sufficient energy for intensive agriculture and for cooking and heating using firewood. Help Writing Hebron? A major decrease in fossil-fuel use by the industrial countries would require adoption of new technologies based on new energy sources, with improved conversion and end-use efficiencies, on a scale that would require 40 years at scholarship essay Lancing, minimum to implement fully, even in favorable circumstances (86). Yet a three- or fourfold increase in effective energy services to the earth's peoples would be required to yield the improvements needed in the quality of life in a world of roughly doubled population. We do not consider here the considerable challenge that this provides (87). Even assuming that sufficient fossil or other fuels were available in the future to support energy-intensive agriculture in developing countries, several constraints appear to make this difficult. These include: the high economic costs of the need writing Academy energy inputs to those countries that already have serious debt problems; the lack of rainfall and/or irrigation water preventing effective use of the inputs; and farmers in developing nations who are not educated in write scholarship essay Lancing the use of a successful (INTO), intensive agricultural methods and who change their ways slowly. A slowing of write scholarship, deforestation would mean less new cropland added to the present world inventory, so that the processes now degrading and destroying cropland could not be compensated by new acreage.
Population growth remains a basic problem. About 0.5 ha capita of cropland is needed to write essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), provide a balanced plant/animal diet for humans worldwide (88). For the how to College 1990 population of 5.5 billion, only 0.27 ha capita is now available and this is writing a descriptive a place likely to decline further. Moreover, the rate of population growth itself, especially in many developing nations, intensifies the problems of coping with shortages owing to the difficulty of providing the economic expansion required (89). A major difficulty arises simply from the rate with which food supplies would have to be expanded to pace or to exceed population growth rates in those countries experiencing high growth rates. In order to stay even with population growth it will be necessary to expand food supplies, globally, by the rate of population increase. For many countries the rate of population expansion is in the range 2-3% yr.
As an example, in order to achieve an increase of how to write Lancing College, 50% in the per capita food production, by writing essay about a place the end of how to write scholarship essay Lancing, a population doubling, the rate of expansion of agricultural production must be appropriately larger. If the population grows at 2% yr, the food production must increase at 3.2% yr, if it is 3% yr, the argumentative subjects TASIS School in Switzerland) food production must grow at 4.8% yr. During the scholarship essay Lancing Green Revolution the world grain yield expanded at 2.8% yr. As noted earlier, this rate of expansion has slowed and, it appears, is unlikely to be resumed (90) although some countries in Asia and Latin America are still gaining total annual increases in grain yield. In the need help writing essay US, which has one of the best records with corn, the rate of increase from Lancing College, 1945 to 1990 was about 3% yr. Since 1980, this rate has slowed. However, with wheat the record is not as good as with corn, the increase in world grain yield is need writing Hebron less than 2% yr. If the historical record is any guide, no nation with a population growth rate above 2% yr has much hope of improving its per capita supply of food unless it receives very substantial external aid and support. Scholarship Essay College? Of course these rates of increase for both population and food production, if achieved. cannot be sustained indefinitely. Projections of future grain production depend on a host of variables most of which are uncertain. It is not possible to how to essay University of Gloucestershire (INTO), make useful forecasts.
As an scholarship, alternative we consider three scenarios, for the period to essay Wrekin, the year 2050. The first assumes a continuation of present trends, patterns, and activities. How To Write Lancing College? This is referred to as Business-As-Usual, or BAU. Population growth is assumed to follow the UN medium projection leading to about 10 billion people by 2050, soil erosion continues to degrade land productivity, salinization and waterlogging of the soil continues, and groundwater overdraft continues with supplies in some aquifers being depleted; there is a modest expansion of cropland at the expense of world forests, and scholarship service, a slight expansion of irrigation. In BAU, the consequences of the greenhouse effect and of ultraviolet injury are ignored, and the developed world does not provide significantly more aid to the developing world than at present, nor does the developing world continue, on balance, its current rate of how to write scholarship essay Lancing, economic development (91). A pessimistic scenario considers qualitatively the possible consequences of climatic changes and ground-level ultraviolet radiation increase that could depress crop yields, coupled with the high UN population growth projection, leading to nearly 13 billion people in 2050. The economic debt that many nations face today continues to worsen, especially limiting developing nations in the purchase of fertilizer and other agricultural goods to enhance productivity.
An optimistic scenario assumes rapid population growth stabilization with a 2050 population of 7.8 billion, significant expansion of energy-intensive agriculture and improved soil and water conservation with some reclamation of write about my life School of Business, now-abandoned land. In this scenario, the developed countries provide the developing nations with increased financial resources and technology and a more equitable distribution of food is achieved. There is a shift from how to essay, high animal protein to more plant protein consumption in the developed countries, freeing more grain for the developing nations. In these scenarios we make use of extrapolations of write an essay about School of Business, current trends consistent with the range of assumptions we have adopted. This procedure is inherently unsatisfactory owing both to write essay Lancing, the difficulty of determining trends from fluctuating historical data and because few trends continue for how to write essay (INTO) periods comparable to the interval of write essay Lancing College, interest to us. How To Write A Successful (INTO)? Nevertheless, it does over a number of scholarship essay, scenarios, shed light on writing service Wrekin College the range of achievable futures. Business As Usual (BAU) Grainland declined from how to scholarship, 718 million ha in 1980 to 704 million ha in 1991 (92), a decline we assume continues, leading to 620 million ha in 2050. There is 0.06 ha capital available for grain production in service Wrekin that year, or less than half of that available in 1991.
This will create major obstacles to increasing grain food production, especially if land degradation continues (Table 3). The rate of loss we assume is about half that projected for the next 25 years in The Netherlands report on the National Environmental Outlook 1990-2010, (93) In BAU, we make the optimistic assumption that a modest expansion of irrigation will continue as it has recently. The fraction of land irrigated in 2050 we estimate will be 18% in BAU, 17% in the pessimistic case, 19% in the optimistic case. Estimates suggest that degradation can be expected to depress food production in the developing world between 15% and 30% over write scholarship Lancing the next 25-year period, unless sound conservation practices are instituted now, and that the total loss in productivity of writing a descriptive essay Florida, rainfed cropland would amount to a daunting 29% due to erosion of topsoil during the same time period (94). Despite the increased use of fertilizers. the rate of increase in grain production appears to how to essay Lancing College, be slowing (55, 95).Figure 2 shows the world's grain yield from 1950 to 1991 as well as the per capita grain yield (x96). In recent years, 1985 to 1991, the help essay Hebron total growth rate has dropped below 1.4% yr, less than the current rate of world population growth. College? Based on past trends we estimate a 300% increase in the use of nitrogen and other fertilizer by the year 2050 and about 12% expansion of essay about, irrigated land, consistent with BAU.
In view of the how to write scholarship College constraints we have identified we conclude that an expansion of 0.7% yr in grain production is achievable in the decades ahead. With this rate of expansion, there would be a 50% increase in annual grain production by 2050 compared to 1991, with the world per capita grain production decreasing about help writing Academy 20%. These projections are shown in Figure 3. The 2050 per capita number is about the same as it was in 1960. In our scenario, however, the industrial world's per capita grain production increases about 13%. If the distribution patterns remain the same as today's, as BAU assumes, then the per capita grain production in Africa, China, India, and write scholarship essay College, other Asian nations, will, on writing average, decrease more than 25%. In BAU, most developing nations suffer reductions in how to write scholarship College per capita grain production. Many nations today are not producing sufficient food and in this scenario many more will join them by 2050.
This conclusion is consistent with other assessments (15). How To Write A Successful University Of Gloucestershire? One study concluded that if the African population continues to grow, and agricultural production remains roughly constant, the food produced would, in 25 years, support about 50% of its year 2000 population; for the Middle East about write scholarship essay Lancing College 60% of its population. In BAU, some developed nations suffer small declines whereas others have gains in grain production. In general, it appears that Africa, as noted earlier, as well as China and India, will face particularly severe problems in write an essay School & Management expanding their food supplies in the coming decades. The people of these regions are likely to comprise almost two thirds of the developing countries', and over half of the write Lancing world's, population, both in 2025 and 2050.
The US appears to have the potential of generating food surpluses for some years, a potential that it shares with parts of Europe, including Eastern Europe, Canada, and possibly other regions. The longer term prospects are unknown in about of Central view of difficulties which may appear later. Pessimistic Scenario (PS) Scenario PS adopts most of the assumptions in BAU, but includes several other factors which may decrease the how to write scholarship essay Lancing rate of grain production in essay the years ahead. If the population growth rate continues only write scholarship Lancing College, slightly lower than it is today to the year 2050, the world population will rise to about 13 billion (Figure 1), more than double the present population. Writing? A recent analysis (97, 98) of the consequences of write scholarship Lancing College, climatic change on world food production, not including problems arising from the availability of irrigation water, concluded that decreases in global food production would. be small, but with developing countries suffering decreases of as much as 10%. We believe that, in essay the period to 2050, the greenhouse effect and scholarship essay College, ozone loss could together depress grain yields on a global basis by 10% to 20%. We base our estimates (Table 4) on current rates of cropland loss (Table 3), continued decline in per capita irrigation (59), degradation of irrigated land (Table 3), and continued decline on the rate of fertilizer use by some farmers in how to a successful University of Gloucestershire (INTO) developing countries (26,99).
A moderate combination of these adverse factors leads to grain production in how to scholarship essay Lancing College 2050 about 15% below BAU. While this represents nearly a 30% increase in grain production over 1991, it means per writing essay Hebron Academy capita production would be down over 40%. There is, in how to write essay this scenario, little hope of providing adequate food for the majority of humanity by the middle or later decades of the period we consider. Optimistic Scenario (OS) If rapid population growth stabilization can be effected, leading to a world population of 7.8 billion instead of 13 billion by the year 2050, then grain production adequate for the population might be achievable. This would require a near doubling of today's production (Table 4). Soil and water conservation programs would have to be implemented to halt soil degradation and the abandonment of cropland. Developing countries would have to be provided with fossil fuels or alternative energy sources to alleviate the burning of crop residues and dung.
Increasing oil and other fossil fuels for this purpose will aggravate the problem of controlling greenhouse gases. Irrigation would have to be expanded by about 20%. The area planted to grains would be expanded by essay writing service 20% and the amount of nitrogen and other fertilizers expanded 450%. Both the developed and developing nations would have to give high priority to food production and protecting the environment so as to maintain a productive agriculture. The developed countries would have to help finance these changes and also provide technology to the developing nations. At the same time, with diet shifts in the developed world, the 2050 population of 7.8 billion might be fed an adequate diet. If efforts were made to triple world food production, compared to today's yield, then all of the scholarship above changes would have to how to write essay, be made, plus increasing the level of energy intensiveness in the developing world's agriculture by 50- to 100-fold. This would include a major expansion in write essay world irrigation. Such increases appear to be unrealistic. Environmental degradation from such expansions could not be constrained or controlled even if expansion were feasible.
The human race now appears to be getting close to the limits of global food productive capacity based on present technologies. Substantial damage already has been done to the biological and argumentative subjects TASIS (The American School, physical systems that we depend on for food production. This damage is continuing, and in some areas is accelerating. How To Write Lancing? Because of its direct impact on global food production injury and loss of arable land has become one of the most urgent problems facing humanity. Of these problems, this is perhaps the most neglected. Controlling these damaging activities and increasing food production must now receive priority and need Academy, resources commensurate with their importance if humanity is to how to essay, avoid harsh difficulties in the decades ahead.
Attempts to markedly expand global food production would require massive programs to conserve land, much larger energy inputs than at about my life IUBH School of Business, present, and how to write scholarship Lancing, new sources as well as more efficient use of argumentative in Switzerland), fresh water. all of which would demand large capital expenditures. The rates of food grain growth required to increase the per capita food available, in the light of how to scholarship College, present projections of population growth, are greater than have been achieved under any but the most favorable circumstances in developed countries. Our business-as-usual scenario suggests that the world is unlikely to how to write a successful University of Gloucestershire, see food production keep pace with population growth if things continue as they have. If they do continue then the world will experience a declining per essay College capita food production in the decades ahead. This decline would include spreading malnutrition and increased pressure on agricultural, range, and forest resources.
Should climatic alteration from write IUBH School & Management, greenhouse warming and enhanced ultraviolet levels impose further stress on agricultural systems, the prospects for increased food production would become even less favorable than they are at present. In our opinion. a tripling of the world's food production by the year 2050 is how to Lancing College such a remote prospect that it cannot be considered a realistic possibility. If present food distribution patterns persist the chance of bettering the lot of the majority of the world's peoples vanishes. The likelihood of a graceful and humane stabilization of world population vanishes as well. Fertility and population growth in numerous developing countries will then be forced downward by severe shortages of food, disease, and by other processes set in motion by shortages of vital resources and irreversible environmental damage. A major expansion in food supply would require a highly organized global effort-by both the developed and the developing countries-that has no historic precedent. How To An Essay School Of Business? As yet a major commitment from the developed nations to write scholarship essay Lancing, support the how to write a successful University (INTO) needed changes is missing, and College, inadequate commitment in both developing and developed nations has been made for population stabilization. Governments so far appear to lack the discipline and vision needed to make a major commitment of resources to subjects TASIS (The in Switzerland), increase food supplies, while at the same time reducing population growth and protecting land, water, and biological resources.
While a rough doubling of food production by 2050 is perhaps achievable in principle, in accord with optimistic assumptions, the elements to accomplish it are not now in place or on the way. A large number of supportive policy initiatives and investments in research and infrastructure as well as socioeconomic and cultural changes would be required for it to become feasible. A major reordering of world priorities is thus a prerequisite for meeting the problems that we now face. References and Notes. 1. Horiuchi, S. 1992. Stagnation in the decline of the world population growth rate during the 1980s Science 257, 761-765. 2. United Nations Population Fund, 1991. Population, Resources and the Environment, United Nations, NY.
3. UNFPA, UN Population Fund, 1991. The State of World Population 1991, UN, New York. 4. Homer-Dixon, T.F. 1991. India's population growth rate has leveled off at 2.1%/year and China's at 1.3%/year. On the threshold: environmental changes as causes of acute conflict. Inter. Sec. 16, 76-116. 5. Long-range World Population Projections.
Department of international and Economic and Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, 1992. Document Number ST/ESA/SER.A/125. 6. World Watch Institute, 1990. State of The World, 1990, Washington. The 430 M ha estimated to have been abandoned during a 40 year period is further confirmed by the World Resources Institute's estimation that 10 M ha/yr of cropland is lost by how to Lancing erosion.
7. A Report by The World Resources Institute, 1990. World Resources 1990-1991, Oxford University Press, New York. Additional losses and abandonment of essay writing service Wrekin College, agricultural land are caused by water logging, salinization, urbanization and others processes as discussed later in the text. 8. Moffat, A. S. 1992. Does global change threaten the world food supply? Science 256, 1140-1141. 9. Malthus, T.R. 1970.
An Essay on the Principle of Population. Penguin Books, New York. 10. CIMMYT, 1987. The Future Development of Maize and Wheat in the Third World, Mexico, DF. 11. Dahlberg, K.A. Write Scholarship College? 1979.
Beyond the Green Revolution: the need help writing essay Hebron Academy Ecology and Politics of Global Agricultural Development, Plenum Press, New York. 12. College? Dahlberg, K A. How To Write Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO)? 1985. Environment and the Global Arena: Actors Values, Policies, Duke University Press, Durham. NC. 13. World Health Organization/United Nations Environment Programme, 1989.
Public Health Impact of Pesticides Used in Agriculture. WHO/UNEP, Geneva. 14. A quantity that increases linearly exhibits a declining rate of expansion, expressed in write Lancing College per cent per year. A constant rate of growth implies exponential increase. 15.
Global Ecology Handbook, Beacon Press, Boston, 1990. 16. Cherfas, J. 1990. FAO proposes a new plan for writing Wrekin College feeding Africa, Science 250, 748. 17. The 1989 world marine catch was 99.5 metric tons. Current Fisheries Statistics #9000, Fisheries of the United. States, 1990. Supplemental May 1991.
National Marine Fisheries Service. NOAA. The estimate in scholarship essay Lancing text based on. weight. Less than 1% of world food based on calories is a place University of Central Florida obtained from the how to write scholarship College aquatic environment. 18. Food Balance Sheets. Food and Agriculture Organization of the writing a descriptive essay a place of Central Florida United Nations, 1991.
The total yield is considered by the UN Food and Agriculture Organization as at the maximum sustainable yield from the oceans. A number of important world fisheries have started to collapse. 19. Kales, R.W. Scholarship? et al. 1988. The Hunger Report, Brown University Hunger Project, Brown University, Providence. Subjects American School? Rhode Island. 20. Kates, R.W. et al. Scholarship Essay Lancing? 1989. The Hunger Report: Update 1989, Brown University Hunger Project, Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.
21. Ehrlich, P. in On Global Warming, First Presidential Symposium on World Issues, Virginia Polytechnic Institute State University, September 1989. In the early 1980s the World Bank and UNFAO estimated that from 700 mill, to 1 bill. Scholarship Writing? persons lived in absolute poverty. How To Write Essay Lancing? In 1989 the number was 1.225B, or 23% of world population. In that year poverty increased dramatically in sub-Saharan Africa. Writing A Descriptive About? Latin America, and parts of Asia, swamping reductions in China and write Lancing College, India. 22.
McNamara, R.S. 1991. Rafael M. A Successful University Of Gloucestershire? Salas Memorial Lecture, United Nations, New York. 23 Administrative Committee on Coordination - Subcommittee on how to write essay Nutrition, 1992. Second Report on the World Nutrition Situation, (Vol 1), U.N. United Nations, NY. 24. Statistical Analysis Service, Statistical Division, Economic and Social Policy Dept., UN Food and Agriculture Organization, 1992. World Food Supplies and Prevalence of Chronic Undernutrition in Developing Regions as Assessed in 1992, United Nations, New York.
25. Lal. R. Article Louisiana? 1990. Soil Erosion and Land Degradation: The Global Risks. Scholarship Essay Lancing College? In: Advances in Soil Science. Volume 11. Soil Degradation. Lal. R. and Stewart. B.A. (eds). Springer-Verlag, New York. 26.
Buringh, P. 1989. Availability of agricultural land for crop and livestock production In: Food and Natural Resources. Pimentel. D. and Hall. C.W. A Successful Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO)? (eds), Academic Press, San Diego, p. 69-83. 27. Sehgal, J.L. Write Scholarship? et al. 1990.
Agro-ecological regions of India. Technical Bulletin 24, NBSSLUP, New Delhi, 1-76. 28. Vitousek, P.M. et al. 1986. Human appropriation of the products of photosynthesis, Bioscience 36, 368-373. 29.
Lai, R. and Pierce, F.J. Writing Essay? 1991. Soil Management for Sustainability, Ankeny, Iowa: Sod and Water Conservation Soc. In: Coop. How To Write College? with World Assoc. of scholarship essay College, Soil and Water Conservation and Soil Sci. Soc. of Amer. 30. McDaniel, T.A. and write scholarship Lancing, Hajek. B.F. 1985. Soil erosion effects on crop productivity and soil properties in Alabama.
48-58. In: Erosion and Soil Productivity. ASAE Publication 885. St. Joseph, Ml. 31. Follett, R.F. and Stewart, B.A. 1985. Soil Erosion and Crop Productivity. Madison, WI: American Society of Agronomy. Need Writing Hebron Academy? Crop Science Society of America.
32. How To Essay Lancing College? Pimentel, D. Help Writing Essay Academy? 1990. Environmental and social implications of waste in agriculture, J. Agr. Environ. Ethics 3, 5-20. 33. Troeh, F.R., Hobbs, J.A. and Donahue, R.L. 1991. Soil and Water Conservation. Write Scholarship Lancing? 2nd Edition, Prentice Hall Englewood Cliffs, NJ.
34. Dregne, H.E. Need Help? 1982. Historical Perspective of Accelerated Erosion and Effect on World Civilization Amer. Soc. Agron., Madison. Wisc. 35. How To Write College? Economic Research Service, AR-23. 1991.
Agricultural Resources: Cropland Water, and about IUBH of Business, Conservation Situation and Outlook Report, US Department of Agriculture, Wash. 36. How To Write Scholarship College? Barrow, C.J. 1991. Land Degradation, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.
37. Pimentel, D. 1993. World Soil Erosion and Conservation. Cambridge University Press, 38. Writing Essay A Place University Of Central Florida? 1 cm of soil over one hectare weighs 112 tons and 2.5 cm weighs about 280 tons. Thus a soil loss of 16 t ha yr, as in how to essay the US, will result in the loss of an inch of soil in 17.5. 39.
Office of Technology Assessment. 1982. Impacts of Technology on U.S. How To A Successful Essay Of Gloucestershire (INTO)? Cropland and Rangeland Productivity US Congress, Washington, DC. 40. Hudson, N.W. 1981. Soil Conservation. 2nd ed Cornell University Press, Ithaca. NY. 41.
Lai, R. 1984. Productivity assessment of tropical soils and the effects of erosion In: Quantification of the write Lancing College Effect of Erosion on Soil Productivity in an International Context. Rijsberman, F.R. and Wolman, M.G. (eds). Delft Hydraulics Laboratory. Delft. Netherlands p. 0-94.
42. Lai, R. 1984 Soil erosion from tropical arable lands and its control. Adv. Agron. 37, 183. 43. Elwell, H.A. 1985. An assessment of argumentative subjects American School in Switzerland), soil erosion in Zimbabwe. Zimbabwe Sci. News 19, 27-31. 44.
Environment Department. Policy and Research Division. Oct. 1980. Asia Region: Review of Watershed Development Strategies and Technologies. How To Write Essay College? Asia Region, Technical Development, Agricultural Division. Need Writing Essay? Washington, DC. 45. How To Write College? Pimentel, D., Stachow, U., Takacs, D.A., Brubaker, H.W., Dumas, A.R., Meaney, J.J., O'Neil, J., Onsi, D.E. and Corzilius, D.B.
1992. Essay Wrekin College? Conserving biological diversity in agricultural/forestry systems. Bioscience 42, 354-362. 46. Tolba, M K. How To Write Scholarship Essay Lancing College? 1989. Our biological heritage under siege, Bioscience 39, 725-728. 47. Brown, L. 1984. State of the World 1984, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC. 48. Nitrogen Fertilizers.
1990. FAO fertilizer Yearbook 40, 44-55, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome. 49. Office of Technology Assessment. A Descriptive About Florida? 1982. Impacts of Technology on U.S. Cropland and Rangeland Productivity, US Congress, Washington, DC. 50. McLauglin, L. 1994. Soil erosion and conservation in essay Lancing northwestern China, In: World Soil Erosion and (The School in Switzerland), Conservation, Pimentel, D. (ed.), Cambridge University press., Cambridge.
51. Dunkerley, J. et al. Write Scholarship Lancing College? 1990. Patterns of Energy Use in Developing Countries, Desai, A.V. (ed) Wiley Easter, Limited. International Development Centre Ottawa. 52. Leyton, L. 1983. Crop water use: principles and some considerations for scholarship essay writing Wrekin College agroforestry. In: Plant Research and Agroforestry, Huxley, P.A. (ed.), International Council for Research in Agroforestry, Nairobi, Kenya. 53. Batty, J.C. and write Lancing, Keller.
1. 1980. Energy requirements for irrigation. In: Handbook Of Energy Utilization in Agriculture D. Pimentel. D. (ed.). CRC Press. How To Write About & Management? Boca Raton, FL. p. 35-44. 54. Ritschard, R.L. and Tsao, K. 1978. Energy and Water Use in write scholarship Irrigated Agriculture During Drought Conditions, Lawrence Berkeley Lab., University of California, Berkeley.
55. World Resources 1992-93. A Report to my life IUBH School of Business, the World Resources Institute, Oxford University Press, New York. 56. Pimentel, D. 1980. Title? Ambio. Write Lancing College? (Hittar ej Pimentel som forf, 1980). 57 Postel, S. 1992. Last Oasis: Facing Water Scarcity. W. W. Norton and Co., New York.
58 Postel, S. 1984. Argumentative Subjects TASIS? Water: Rethinking Management in an Age of Scarcity. Worldwatch Paper No 62, Worldwatch Institute, Washington. 59. Postel, S. How To? 1989.
Water for Agriculture: Facing the Limits, Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC. 60. Anonymous 1992. Salt of the earth, The Economist 323, 34. 61. Gleick, P.H. (ed). i 993. Water in Crisis: A Guide to the World's Fresh Water Resources, Oxford University Press, New York. 62. Global Environment Monitoring System.
1991. Freshwater Pollution, United Nations Environment Programme, Nairobi, Kenya. 63. Smil, V. How To An Essay IUBH School Of Business? 1993. China's Environmental Crisis, An Inquiry into how to write scholarship the Limits of National Development, M.E. Sharpe/East Gate Books, New York. 64. Postel, S. 1990. Saving water for agriculture. In: State of the World. Worldwatch Institute, Washington, DC.
65. Kerr, R. A. 1992 Greenhouse science survives skeptics. Science 256, 1138. 66. Stone, P.H. 1992. Argumentative TASIS (The American School? Technology Review, p 32. Feb/Mar with additional correspondence, ibid. May/Jun, p 10. 67.
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Reported at the MIT Conference The World at Risk: Natural Hazards and Climate Change. MIT, Cambridge. Mass. Write? Jan 14-16, 1992. 69. US Dept. of Agriculture, 1990. Essay? Agricultural Statistics, US Gov't Printing Office. 70. Martin, P., Rosenberg, N. and McKenney, M. How To College? 1989. Sensitivity of evapotranspiradon in a wheat field, a forest and a grassland to scholarship writing service, changes in climatic and direct effects of carbon dioxide, Climate Change 14, 117-152. 71.
Bazzaz, F.A. and Fajer. E.D. 1992. Plant life in a CO2-rich world. Sci Am. 266, 68-74. 72. How To Scholarship College? Kerr, R.A. Scholarship Writing Service Wrekin? 1992. New assaults seen on earth's ozone shield. Science 255, 797-798. 73. Levi, B. G. 1992.
Arctic measurements indicate the chilly prospect of ozone depletion, Physics Today 45, 17. 74. Stolarski, R. et al. 1992. Measured trends in stratospheric ozone. Science 256, 342. 75. Smith, R.C. et al. 1992. Ozone depletion: Ultraviolet radiation and phytoplankton biology in Antarctic waters. Science 255, 952-959.
76. National Academy of how to write Lancing, Sciences, 1989. One Earth, One Future, Washington. 77. Teramura, A.H. and Sullivan, J.H. 1989. How increased solar ultra-violet billion radiation may impact agricultural productivity.
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Realistic mitigation options for global warming, Science 257, 148. 86. Union of Concerned Scientists, 1991. America's Energy Choices: Investing in a Strong Economy and a Clean Environment, Cambridge. 87.
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3. Environmental Change Unit, Univ. of scholarship, Oxford. 98. Rozenzwieg, C. and scholarship Wrekin, Parry, M.L. 1994. Potential impact of climate change on world food supply, Nature 367, 133-138. 99. UNFAO Report, 1984. Potential Population-Supporting Capacities of Land in the Developing World, UN Food and Agriculture Organization, NY. 100. Putnam, J.J. and Allshouse, I.E.
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105. Myers, N. 1990. Subjects School? Mass extinctions: What can the past tell us about the present and future? Global and Planetary Change 2, 82. 106. UN Food and write College, Agriculture Organization Quart. Bull. How To Write About School Of Business & Management? Stat. 4, 26-27. 107. The authors wish to express their appreciation to how to scholarship essay College, the following people for their help in the preparation of this work: V. Abernathy, M. grower, S. Chisholm, W. Dazong, M. ElAshty, P Faeth, M. Falkenmark, M. Giampietro, R. Goodland, K. Gottfried, S. Hams, D. Hornig, T. Mount, I. Oka, E. Oyer, M. Paoletti, M. Pimentel, P. Pinstrup Andersen, T Poleman, S. Postel, P. Raven, K. Robinson, T. Louisiana? Scott, L. Stifel and N. Uphoff.
108. First submitted 22 March, 1993, accepted for publication after revision 11 August, 1993.
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Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the doctrine of precedent. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the doctrine of precedent. Judicial precedent concerns itself with the College influence and value of past decisions of case law and article writing Louisiana State prior legal experience. The doctrine of precedent means that judges refer back to previous decisions to help them decide similar cases where the law and write essay facts are alike. A fundamental principle upon which the doctrine of scholarship essay writing College judicial precedent rests, is that a hierarchy of courts is needed if it is to operate. The concept of stare decisis, meaning to stand by what has been decided, forms the basis of the doctrine of judicial precedent. The notion is that like cases should be treated alike for the sake of certainty and consistency which, it is argued, leads to fairness. The effect of this is that, ordinarily, the legal reasoning on a point of law made in an earlier case must be followed.
If all courts, regardless of their status or seniority, were able to set precedent, the doctrine of judicial precedent would be a nonsense as it would be practically impossible to determine which precedent took precedence! The doctrine of judicial precedent has overcome this by the requirement that all courts are strictly bound to follow decisions made by the courts above them in the hierarchy. How To Scholarship College! In addition appellate courts are normally bound by their own past decisions. However, there are advantages and disadvantages. Any discussion of the advantages is likely to include the article State University point that the doctrine provides certainty in the law. This means the legal profession can give more helpful advice regarding the law to their clients, including advice as to the merits of the case and, just as importantly, advice regarding the outcome. This is essential because issues of costs are likely to be involved and any question of write essay College whether to continue with a court action may have to be balanced with the write an essay my life IUBH School chances of scholarship essay Lancing College success and the probable costs involved.
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Mr Justice Darling J was reported as saying “The law, like the tavern, is open to all. Lord Justice Matthew elaborated by saying “In England justice is open to all, like the Ritz” pertaining to the fact that you may be able to enter the Ritz but you would need money to make full use of the service there. In recent times an independent judiciary is seen as an how to essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) essential but separate arm of the state and no less important than the executive part of government and the legislature. There are some limited ways in which judges may avoid precedent and these include distinguishing. Distinguishing may be used by how to write essay Lancing a judge if he or she decides that the essay writing material facts are sufficiently different from the earlier case which would otherwise have set a precedent for the present case to follow.
The facts used to differentiate the two cases must be relevant and how to write scholarship College material to help essay Hebron Academy, the legal principles which will determine the outcome of the how to scholarship essay College case trivial or minor differences will not suffice. Unless the judge is able to draw such a distinction he would be bound to writing essay about of Central, follow the previous case even if he or she did not agree with the legal reasoning. The concept of judicial precedent is strictly adhered to. Sometimes the practice of distinguishing is criticised as it leads to 'hair splitting' or 'illogical' differences, meaning that it is hard to see any real justification for not following the previous precedent thus making the law become uncertain and undermining the key reason behind having a system based upon past judicial decisions. There are two cases which are often cited by way of illustration of how distinguishing works. The cases are Balfour v Balfour (1919) and Merritt v Merritt (1971) . How To! In both cases a wife made a claim against her husband for article writing University breach of contract. In Balfour v Balfour the husband went overseas to work and his wife was unable to go with him, he agreed orally to send her £30 a month until she was able to join him. Essay Lancing College! The relationship broke down and the payments ceased. The wife tried to get the agreement enforced but the claim failed as it was decided that there was no intention to a descriptive about of Central Florida, create legal relations (one of the conditions one would normally expect in order to find that a legally binding agreement existed). The arrangement was one which was considered to be a domestic arrangement between a husband and a wife.
In the later case the scholarship essay College claim succeeded. How To A Successful Essay University Of Gloucestershire! The court in the case of Merritt v Merritt were able to distinguish that there were material differences in the facts from those of Balfour v Balfour . The husband had agreed to how to write scholarship essay Lancing College, pay £40 per month maintenance, the an essay my life IUBH School of Business wife was to essay College, use this to help Hebron Academy, pay the mortgage and, once the mortgage was paid off, the how to scholarship essay house was to be transferred from joint names to the wife's name. Although this had been written down and the agreement signed, the need essay Hebron husband would not transfer the house when the mortgage was paid. The differences were that in the Merritt case the parties were already separated so the relationship between one family member and another could be seen to be different and more distant. This might explain why the write essay parties decided to put the agreement in writing, again this was not the case in Balfour and suggested an intention to argumentative, put the arrangement on a more formal footing. So in this case the husband had to transfer the house to the wife.
Some might also argue that over the time between the cases, society's attitude towards the subject of marital breakdown may well have changed and that the court's decision in Merritt simply needed to be more realistic and reflect the parties' need to protect themselves. Overruling is another way of avoiding precedent. Overruling a previous precedent arises where a court decides, in a later case, that the how to scholarship legal ruling or reasoning in an earlier case was not correctly applied or no longer appropriate, the a successful University court is how to Lancing College really saying that the earlier decision should not now be followed and the case is no longer considered to scholarship writing service Wrekin College, be good law. Illustrations of when overruling may occur are: 1. When a higher court overrules a decision made by a lower court in an earlier case e.g. the Supreme Court overruling the decision of the Court of Appeal in an earlier case; 2. When the European Court of Justice decides to overrule a previous decision that it has been made by not following the decision; 3. When the Supreme Court decides to exercise its discretion and declare one of its own previous decisions to be no longer law and overrules it. The cases of Pepper v Hart (1993) and how to write scholarship Lancing Davis v Johnson (1979) provide a good example of the principle of overruling by an essay about my life School the House of Lords using its authority under the Practice Statement 1966 . In Pepper v Hart the House of Lords decided that Hansard (the official record of of what is said in Parliament) could be admitted in how to scholarship College, evidence before the court when trying to writing a descriptive essay about of Central Florida, decide what was meant by particular words in a statute. This meant that the earlier decision of Davis v Johnson to the effect that Hansard could not be consulted no longer represented the law and was overruled. There is a reluctance to overrule old decisions and this may be because overruling operates retrospectively, meaning that the principle of law being overruled is held never to have been law. It may also have the effect of criminalising previously lawful behaviour.
As can be seen there is how to scholarship Lancing some room for flexibility but in reality such cases are exceptional and argumentative subjects (The American in Switzerland) opportunities are effectively limited to the Court of essay Lancing College Appeal and how to write of Gloucestershire the Supreme Court bearing in mind their position in the court hierarchy. It is said that the doctrine of precedent saves time. This is because the law can be found in important cases which set precedent and how to essay College that such decisions are likely to be found in the decisions of the senior courts in article writing State University, the hierarchy. There will be endless similar case dealing with similar points of law and material facts. It would be tempting for lawyers to spend considerable time researching such cases were it not for the doctrine of precedent.
The doctrine means that in effect it is only the earlier decisions of the senior appellant courts which are high enough in the hierarchy to stand the test of time and set a precedent. There will be numerous cases which do not set a precedent. So the doctrine is said to save time as the write essay Lancing law is found in the cases which set precedent not the how to write essay University numerous other cases. Although time saving does occur the system is how to write complex and sometimes the courts feel it necessary to how to an essay my life IUBH School, remind themselves about how the law in a specific area has developed over a period of time. This may be justified on the basis that it leads to a better understanding of the law amongst the judiciary and the legal profession but such detailed considerations are time consuming and expensive as it consumes the court's time.
This may be particularly notable in difficult areas of the law and in situations where the judiciary attempt to how to scholarship essay Lancing, draw attention to matters which they feel need the attention of Parliament and article writing State University are best left to Parliament such as the Lancing criminal age of responsibility. In (a minor) v DPP(1996) , the House referred to the anomalies and issues raised by writing Louisiana State University the rebuttable common law presumption that a child between the ages of 10 and 14 is incapable of committing a crime. Despite a suggestion that the Lancing House had some sympathy for the arguments for change, the House refused to abolish the presumption and publicly stated that they called upon Parliament to act on the matter. The case is helpful in that Lord Lowry gave some considered guidelines as to when it might be appropriate to argumentative TASIS School, engage in judicial law-making. Lord Lowry, who gave the College leading judgement, said it was time for writing State University a much- needed new look at an undoubted problem. This is a classic case for parliamentary investigation, deliberation and legislation,. Lord Lowry was perhaps right to be cautious as we now know the write essay Lancing age of criminal responsibility is essay writing service still the subject of write considerable debate to this day.
There are a number of scholarship essay Wrekin College disadvantages and these include the assertion that the system is too rigid. This in turn leads to the criticism that the law is too slow to write scholarship essay College, develop and does not keep pace with social change and developments in society. There are strong arguments that the law should meet the needs of the society it serves and that problems arise if it does not. If the law does not grow and develop then there is the possibility that sections of society may feel that they are deprived of important rights of redress. In British Railways Board v Herrington (1972) , the House of Lords overruled, or at least, modified, Robert Addie Sons (Collieries) Ltd v Dumbreck (1929) . In Addie , the House of Lords had held that an occupier of premises was only liable to a trespassing child who was injured by (The American School the occupier intentionally or recklessly. In Herrington, their Lordships held that a more responsible approach was appropriate in the changed social conditions since 1929. The House advanced the test of 'common humanity' which involved the question of whether the occupier has done all that a humane person would have done to protect the how to scholarship essay Lancing safety of the trespasser. The House of article Louisiana State University Lords eventually took the opportunity in write scholarship, 1972 to use their powers under the Practice Statement issued in 1966 to bring about write my life of Business a change in the law but some would argue that such change come about too slowly as the courts seem to prefer the notion of certainty over individual hardship at times. It can be seen that the law is slow to change under the doctrine of precedent. How To Scholarship Essay! This in turn may result in people believing that there is little that they can do because it seems just too difficult to challenge and bring about change. The doctrine does not promote change.This was clearly illustrated in service College, R v R (1991) , the House of Lords abolished altogether a husband's 250 year old immunity from criminal liability for raping his wife.
The House took the view that the law needed to reflect society's expectations, and thought it only proper that it took the how to write scholarship opportunity to act. Lord Keith spoke of a common law fiction which has become anachronistic and offensive.” We can argue that the doctrine of precedent is too complex. In practice it is scholarship writing service College thought to be too difficult for an individual to write College, be able to research and find the law themselves without recourse to professional legal advice. On the one hand we are encouraged, as good citizens, to understand and know the law, but in practice this is very difficult and time consuming. As a result the law is thought to be too challenging and inaccessible for individuals to write a successful essay of Gloucestershire (INTO), understand, whereas it is their law as it applies to them. At the present time there is a great deal of concern over scholarship essay, the issue of accessibility to the courts as a result of changes in an essay about my life IUBH of Business & Management, the way legal aid is administered. It is feared that this might result in more people acting for themselves in the courts meaning that cases may take more time to deal with or that some may not pursue their claims at all. If people feel that the how to write law is too complex they may not know their rights and, by not being fully informed, they may lose financially or in other ways because of not ensuring that their entitlements and rights are met. Society then loses faith in the legal system and this brings sections of the law into disrepute. Cases can, as discussed earlier, be distinguished, enabling a judge to make a decision without the need to follow precedent, they can also be overruled.
A new precedent can also be formed when 'per incuriam' occurs, this is when a previous decision has been made in error, either through carelessness or by mistake. The judge in the new case will ignore the bad law and form a new precedent. Reversing occurs if the decision of a lower court is appealed to argumentative American School in Switzerland), a higher one, the higher court in the same case overturns the decision of the scholarship lower court and substitutes it with his own. A persuasive precedent can only be used where no binding precedent applies and occurs where a court does not have to follow another courts’ decision but can choose to follow it if they wish. Using the article Louisiana State University source, where there is no previous decision to bind them, judges may make an ‘original precedent’, as in Donoghue v Stevenson (1932) . But the scope to avoid precedent is limited and there have been concerns that distinguishing, for write scholarship College example, leads to 'hair splitting' as a result of attempts to try and show that the present case is materially different from a previous decision or precedent.
This may seem a minor matter but not necessarily so for the parties concerned, and if it happens too often the practice seems to fly in the face of certainty and predictability in the law thereby making it difficult for lawyers to advise clients about the likely outcome of an essay of Business & Management cases. Such issues over distinguishing and hair splitting also seems to trivialise the parties arguments and their case and distract attention away from the merits of how to essay Lancing their claim. Parties may have invested a lot a of time and money in pursuing their claim only to need help essay Academy, find the strength of their case undermined by how to write essay College efforts to show that their case is somehow different and the law will not provide them with a remedy. The Doctrine of Precedent - OCR: Unit G152 - Sources of Law (OCR AS/A2 English Welsh Law 2013) [Kindle Edition] English Judicial Precedent - Fun Facts, Questions, Answers . The case for code | Richard Moorhead.
Privy council overrules Lords to put judgment back on track. An in depth essay looking at the doctrine of precedent and which will help in your understanding of how precedent works in common law. It discusses the constraints and ways in which precedent can be avoided and some of the a successful essay of Gloucestershire (INTO) issues that can arise. Links to some of the cases mentioned in the essay are provided to the right of this page and links to articles and a number of the terms used are shown below. The items below list this Essay as being related in how to write scholarship essay, some way.